Monday, 25 June 2018


Welding engineering covers  topics such as joint design, weld preparations and welding positions.Welding procedures are documents used by the welding engineer to guide the welder in the choice of consumable and welding conditions.They also carry other valuable information such as when preheating is required.
Many standards and classifications are used by the welding industry, but are they easy to understand? For example, MMA electrode manufactures and suppliers quote electrodes as being types E7018 but what does this mean? In fact, the numbers give an indication of the strength of the weld metal which will be deposited by the electrode and the type of coating the electrode has.When a weld is produced both the welding conditions used and the composition of the shielding gas can have a significant affect on the metallurgy.When welding stainless steels, carbon can be added to the weld metal through the decomposition of carbon dioxide used in the shielding gas.If too much carbon is added then this can affect the corrosion properties of the stainless steel.While calculating the welding cost following factors are considered :power consumed,consumable used,labor cost and gas cost.

Heat treatment

Heat treatment is often associated with increasing the strength of a material. There is a range of different heat treatments employed on materials before, during and after welding takes place.  Preheating is a method used to prevent hydrogen cracking taking place.  Heat treating a material can also be a method of reducing or removing stress which may have built up in a component either through forming or welding. It can be used to improve formability, restore ductility and to recover the grain size.It is usually done for  hardening,softening and property modification.Hardening heat treatment is suitable for steels.It is done for improving the  mechanical properties of steel.Sufficient carbon or alloy content is required for hardening.
Hardfacing involves one of two techniques: build-up or overlay. Based on the equipment needs, some may want to use a combination of both. The combination of the two techniques can be completed repeatedly provided that the part or equipment still remains sound.
The build-up technique  returns older equipment back to its original dimensions after it has been worn . The overlay technique adds a layer of protective filler metal deposits to protect against metal loss.
Hardfacing the teeth of digger buckets is carried out to improve the wear resistance of these components.Cladding of the internal surfaces of a vessel with stainless steel panels can mean that the structural parts of the vessel can be made out of a material which is cheaper, but the overall corrosion resistance and working life is not compromised.
Weld testing can be divided into two main areas; destructive and non-destructive testing methods.
In destructive testing, the sample of material or weld is snapped, broken and pulled apart by numerous techniques to gather data regarding the strength, toughness and hardness of the component.With non-destructive testing, as the name suggests, no physical damage occurs to the component.Techniques such as visual inspection, x-ray and ultrasonic testing are some of the most commonly used methods.
Welding and cutting defects:Welding and cutting defects do occur, even when care is taken to try and avoid them.  Understanding the main cause of these defects  is of fundamental importance in ensuring that the defects do not arise

Monday, 18 June 2018


The oil and gas industry is very vast and there are different career options available.  Oil and gas industry consists of hundreds of contractors and sub-contractors, with different types of work split .Even the pipe installation to cleaning is contracted separately – and every area demands entry-level workers who can learn fast. To start an occupation in the mining, oil, and gas industry some requirements are general for most workers; others are specific to occupations .As the jobs don’t require special education, there is hardly a shortage of available labour.  The job vacancies are usually been handled by third-party recruiting firm. The oil and gas companies outsource hiring decisions to trusted partners. One month of work experience in the industry or an internship helps opens doors for a wide variety of opportunities. Large companies have constant job openings which needs filling. Apprenticeships have also become more common. Attending internships in the college is also important for engineering students who hope to start a career in mining, oil, and gas. There are several coaching centres providing training for the same.

The oil and gas extraction depend on drillers to reach resources deep in the earth.  The latest drilling techniques often involve drilling down vertically and then drilling horizontally or in other directions .Drillers have to operate a variety of drills. They need to select the proper drill and drill bits to use and attach additional drill bits, rods, and pipes as the drill reaches deep in the earth. The workers have to keep a track of the drill’s pressure and speed. They monitor critical information, such as the pressure in a well or how much debris is being pumped out. And they keep records of the place where they have drilled, how deep they have gone, and the nature of the layers they have penetrated. The mining workers operate continuous miners, self-propelled machines that extract coal, rock, sand, stone, and other resources from mines. Others operate longwall shears, cutting machines, and other machinery that cuts or channels along mining surfaces. The machine operators determine where and what depth of a hole or channel should be dug. They position the machine and move controls to operate it. They also check their equipment for malfunctions. There are different types of equipment operators in the mining, oil, and gas industry. Most of the equipment used by the workers is similar to that found in the construction industry. Many people start their career in the mining, oil, and gas industry as labourers, or extraction workers. Workers in these occupations have to do different tasks. The jobs are often physically challenging. The extraction helpers assist their senior workers at a mine or oil & gas site. The types of tasks they do depend a lot on the types of extraction.

To succeed in the industry, workers also need determination and technological expertise. The workers who operate or move heavy equipment or machinery need physical strength. People who love adventures and like travelling to different places will like the job. Companies prefer to hire people who work well on teams and have good decision-making and problem-solving skills.

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