Monday, 18 June 2018

OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY


The oil and gas industry is very vast and there are different career options available.  Oil and gas industry consists of hundreds of contractors and sub-contractors, with different types of work split .Even the pipe installation to cleaning is contracted separately – and every area demands entry-level workers who can learn fast. To start an occupation in the mining, oil, and gas industry some requirements are general for most workers; others are specific to occupations .As the jobs don’t require special education, there is hardly a shortage of available labour.  The job vacancies are usually been handled by third-party recruiting firm. The oil and gas companies outsource hiring decisions to trusted partners. One month of work experience in the industry or an internship helps opens doors for a wide variety of opportunities. Large companies have constant job openings which needs filling. Apprenticeships have also become more common. Attending internships in the college is also important for engineering students who hope to start a career in mining, oil, and gas. There are several coaching centres providing training for the same.



The oil and gas extraction depend on drillers to reach resources deep in the earth.  The latest drilling techniques often involve drilling down vertically and then drilling horizontally or in other directions .Drillers have to operate a variety of drills. They need to select the proper drill and drill bits to use and attach additional drill bits, rods, and pipes as the drill reaches deep in the earth. The workers have to keep a track of the drill’s pressure and speed. They monitor critical information, such as the pressure in a well or how much debris is being pumped out. And they keep records of the place where they have drilled, how deep they have gone, and the nature of the layers they have penetrated. The mining workers operate continuous miners, self-propelled machines that extract coal, rock, sand, stone, and other resources from mines. Others operate longwall shears, cutting machines, and other machinery that cuts or channels along mining surfaces. The machine operators determine where and what depth of a hole or channel should be dug. They position the machine and move controls to operate it. They also check their equipment for malfunctions. There are different types of equipment operators in the mining, oil, and gas industry. Most of the equipment used by the workers is similar to that found in the construction industry. Many people start their career in the mining, oil, and gas industry as labourers, or extraction workers. Workers in these occupations have to do different tasks. The jobs are often physically challenging. The extraction helpers assist their senior workers at a mine or oil & gas site. The types of tasks they do depend a lot on the types of extraction.

To succeed in the industry, workers also need determination and technological expertise. The workers who operate or move heavy equipment or machinery need physical strength. People who love adventures and like travelling to different places will like the job. Companies prefer to hire people who work well on teams and have good decision-making and problem-solving skills.

Choose your career  from best oil and gas courses training institute in kerala

Friday, 9 March 2018

PREVENTING RUST ON STAINLESS STEEL PIPES

Focusing on storage and shipping methods, plus adhering to a governing specification, are important for not only operating efficiently but to avoid costly rework. Rust on a stainless steel pipe surface presents a serious concern for oil and gas companies operating piping in fractures in the oil field marine environment, including adjacent coastal areas. When rust appears on the inside or outside surface of a stainless steel pipe, corrosion inspection teams notice, and questions arise as to why it occurred. To obtain high-integrity weldments meeting demanding oilfield service conditions, the Engineering Authority responsible for designing, fabricating, and installing weldments in oilfield applications outsources due diligence for selecting, developing, and supporting subcontracting fabricators.

Fabrication Synopsis

The critically of ensuring manufacturing readiness for a subcontracted fabricator is best handled through analyzing consequences experienced by an Engineering Authority for failing to perform outsourcing due diligence.
Type 316L austenitic stainless steel pipe spools-pipe sizes 2-to 20-in.outside diameter (OD), schedules 10 and 40- were subcontracted for fabrication in accordance with ASME B31.3, process piping.
All pipe welds were visually and radiographically inspected. Upon fabrication completion, all pipe spools were hydrostatically tested then transported to a remote, seaside construction site and stored outdoors, unprotected, for two or four weeks. As the pipe spools lay in storage awaiting installation, widespread rust developed at weld joints and along pipe lengths.
Subsequently, all pipe spools were visually inspected, and many were deemed unacceptable for installation. Pipe spool installation was delayed and an $800,000 cost was endured by the engineering authority to expedite corrective measures, such as chemical treatment and fabrication rework, for obtaining rust-free pipe spools. This event also triggered a root cause investigation encompassing the respective fabricator- the company subcontracted by the engineering authority to fabricate the projects stainless steel pipe spools- along with the engineering authority.

Root Cause Investigation

Six Sigma was employed as a root cause analysis tool in determining why widespread rusting of the 316L stainless steel pipe spools had occurred. The investigation encompassed an on-site review of the fabricator's production facility, shop floor discussion, and stainless steel material/rust specimens. The following factors were identified to be the root causes involving both the fabricator and engineering authority.
               Rusting occurred for two reasons: an anodic reaction resulting from exposure of surface iron (Fe) contamination to a marine environment and iron contamination from an incorrect weld filler metal (a carbon-steel weld filler metal).
Iron Contamination Mechanism

The dissemination of pertinent project documentation is an engineering authority responsibility for welded product outsourcing. However, there was no governing stainless steel material handling and control specification for the project.

Material Handling Issues
Stainless steel pipes were shipped by the pipe manufacturer to the fabricator, with carbon-steel banding straps placed in direct contact with pipe material, so rust strips developed where carbon-steel banding straps had scraped and gouged the pipe. The specification would have stipulated the use of noncontaminating banding straps. Surface rust manifestation is not easily and always successfully removed by mechanical techniques such as grinding, whereas chemical treatment with cleaning, descaling, and passivation is a more thorough and less invasive process.
As a corrective measure to eradicate exogenous iron contamination from the interior and exterior surfaces, project pipe spools were subjected to chemical treatment in accordance with ASTM A 380, Standard practice for cleaning, designing, and passivation of stainless steel parts, equipment, and systems.

Fabrication Practices

In addition, there was no presiding stainless steel welding specification provided by the engineering authority for the fabricator to comply with. A welding specification addresses mandatory requirements, specific prohibitions, and recommended guidelines for fabrication activities to ensure that the intended design services and performance characteristics of the pipe spools are met.
In manufacturing stainless steel weldments, a requisite is to physically isolate stainless steel manufacturing from carbon-steel welding operations to avoid iron contamination. However, within the fabricator's job shop, stainless steel pipe spools for the project were fabricated near to carbon-steel fabrication activities.
Shop and pipe spool cleanliness during production was not adequately maintained such that carbon-steel welding, grinding, and cutting particulate that had accumulated inside the stainless steel pipe spools corroded after being subjected to water for hydrostatic testing.

Widespread rusting of these type 316L stainless steel pipe spool was a direct result of the engineering authority failing to perform outsourcing due diligence. Doing so would have ensured manufacturing readiness of the fabricator prior to and throughout pipe-spool productions. Also, if outsourcing due diligence had been performed, both the engineering authority and fabricator would have been prepared for production activities.



Saturday, 3 March 2018

Removing Residual Magnetism before Arc Welding.

Image result for welding
Welding is used for pipes and tubes in the fabrication of boiler components like headers, panels, and coils.Arc welding processes, including gas tungsten arc welding, shielded metal arc welding, and submerged arc welding are used.The underlying principle of this entire arc welding process is an electric arc is struck between an electrode and base metal, whereas the heat input of electric arc is used for melting and joining metals.
The raw material of the pipes and tubes used for fabrication of boiler components, as mentioned previously at the manufacturing stage, are finally
inspected for quality by nondestructive magnetic particle examination and also handled by magnetic cranes during transportation.Even after demagnetization, some amount of residual magnetism will be present on pipes and tubes and supplied as such.During fabrication, welding of these residual magnetic pipes/tubes is a challenge.

Problems during welding of pipes and tubes.

During welding of pipes and tubes, an electric arc is produced between the electrode and base metal to melt the metals at the welding point.This electric arc consists of a stream of electrons.If a significant level of magnetism is present in the pipes or tubes being welded, then interaction takes place between the magnetic field and the electric arc, which causes the welding arc to be deflected.This is known as arc blow.Due to this wandering of the arc, the welder may not be able to manipulate the arc resulting in welding defects like porosity, incomplete fusion, and more.

Depending upon the level of residual magnetism in steel, welding process such as GTAW, SMAW, and SAW are more sensitive to arc blow.Arc instability occurs in SMAW when the level of residual magnetism in steel is more than 20 Gauges, and arc instability occurs in SAW when the level of residual magnetism in steel is more than 40 gauss.

Magnetic arc blow is more likely to occur with lower voltage arcs.Hence the GTAW process,which has a low arc voltage of 10-15v, is more sensitive and susceptible to arc blow.But GTAW is a common process for root pass welding of pipes and tubes because it provides complete joint penetration welding on one side.Therefore, it is mandatory to demagnetize the residual magnetism developed in pipes and tubes to less
than 10 Gauss before using the GTAW process.

Principle and Method of Diamagnetism

Generally, two types of demagnetization are available: electrical demagnetization and thermal demagnetization.The electrical demagnetization method subjects the magnetized test object to the influence of a continuously reversing magnetic field that gradually reduces in strength, causing a corresponding reversal and reduction of the field in the test object.There are many types;
  • AC Coil
  • AC through current step down
  • AC through current reactor decay
  • DC through current reversing step down
  • DC coil reversing step down
  • AC yoke
  • Reversing DC yoke
The thermal demagnetization method heats the material above Curie temperature, causing magnetic material to lose its magnetic properties.It consists of
  • Annealing above Curie temperature
  • Preheating before welding.
Disadvantages of the Diamagnetism Methods

Both electrical and thermal demagnetization methods have certain disadvantages that restrict their usage for industrial applications, such as in boiler industries.The major disadvantages of using electrical demagnetization are that it is only efficient for smaller size components, and boiler components are larger size pipes and tubes.Therefore, the only suitable method is thermal demagnetization, although the annealing heat treatment demagnetization, although the annealing heat treatment operation consumes more time in heating and cooling cycles, and also power and fuel consumption for this process is more costly.Combining this demagnetization of pipes and tubes with other annealing operations may be more economical.

Principles and methods of bridge piece technique

A bridge piece is a small metal strip used to secure or fit up two butt joint members in alignment for welding. This bridge piece is tack welded on either side of the parts to be welded, securing them alignment by keeping proper root opening and ID matching for making sound weld metal.
When two tubes or pipes having residual magnetism are edge prepared and brought together for welding, the magnetic flux concentrates mostly on the edges due to the nature of the magnetic field. On welding the bridge piece to the tube or pipe by SMAW, the heat produced will cause the tube or pipe edges to be raised to a temperature close to the Curie temperature and reduce the magnetic flux at the edges, enabling the use of GTAW.
  • Select a bridge piece with a minimum leg length of 50 mm so as to have length welded by SMAW, causing more heat input.
  • Select 3 to 4 bridge pieces, depending on the diameter of the pipes or tubes, to cover the circumferential length.
  • Tack weld the bridge pieces on the pipes or tubes, as per the required alignment.
  • Start welding the bridge pieces by SMAW process, probably 3.2 or 4 mm electrode with a slightly higher current of 150-160A.
  • Make 1 or 2 weld passes to increase the heat input.
  • Concentrate 2-3rd current on the bridge piece and 1-3rd current on the pipe to avoid damage to the pipe or tube.
  • Carry the above method in all bridge pieces without time delay. Due to summation effect of welding heat input, the magnetic flux will be reduced at the edge of the piped or tubes, allowing for easy welding without arc blow.
  • While welding the bridge piece onto a pipe or tube, the bridge piece is to be welded only on one side for easy removal after demagnetization.
  • Immediately after welding the bridge piece, being root welding using GTAW.
  • After completion, grind and remove these bridge pieces.

Conclusion
Although various methods are available for demagnetization, they are more restricted due to their applications and time-consuming process. The bridge piece techniques is a fast and practical demagnetization technique applied for welding of tubes and pipes having residual magnetism. This method uses the basic thermal demagnetization principle and is applied in a practical manner.

Sunday, 25 February 2018

IMPROVING WELDER SAFETY

Opening a dialogue among management, welders, and protective-equipment suppliers is a wise idea for keeping pace with ever-changing workers environments. There is a significant need for welding professionals to expand their safety dialogues, particularly with regard to personal protective equipment (PPE). In order for this to occur, it is essential that the nature of these conversations and engagements be improved. Two approaches must take place for success. First, the mindset of the welders needs to be grounded in both individual and shared accountability. There should be the individual commitment of, “I will work safely,” plus a team commitment of, “we will work safely.” an individual must feel responsible to their teams and be empowered to take active roles in promoting safety. In this way, welders can internalize safety-oriented mindsets and ensure safer work practices are followed by all workers every day.
Second, welders should be active participants in the safety-mitigation process and conversations. This engagement needs to emphasize their understanding of the factors that influence their decisions that could lead to injuries, as well as thoughtful dialogue about how to make critical safety decisions. The openness and accountability that results ensure stronger dialogue as welders identify and address safety gaps in PPE. Through the expansion of safety dialogues, the welders will be better equipped to develop innovative risk mitigation solutions, being more adaptive as workplace environments change, and, most importantly, show an improved ability, to proactively avoid situations that could result in an injury.
The openness and accountability that results ensure stronger dialogue as welders identify and address safety gaps in PPE. Through the expansion of safety dialogues, the welders will be better equipped to develop innovative risk mitigation solutions, being more adaptive as workplace environments change, and, most importantly, show an improved ability to proactively avoid situations that could result in an injury.

KEEPING PPE SUPPLIERS IN THE LOOP
In order to talk to the workers and managers about improvements and advantages & disadvantages to safety and PPE gaps, welders should also discuss with their issues and problems with safety product manufacturers to help them identify ways to eliminate injuries or fatalities due to gaps in current safety methods and PPE. This collaborative dialogue not only benefits welders by having their voices and concerns heard but also helps PPE suppliers provide better equipment based on welders need and experiences.

OBSERVING WORK PRACTICES
To make an upgrade to the present PPE available, it's important that welders have a strong understanding of the factors influencing their work practices and performance. The attention of work practices helps determine that professionals are wearing welding helmets and types of PPE properly, and the ways in which welders are interacting with PPE on a daily basis being used correctly. When observing the workers using welding helmets with auto-darkening filter technology, the focus should be on whether workers are lifting their helmets up and down or removing their helmets totally. Safety managers should begin dialogues with these workers to learn their reasons for not using the PPE appropriately and find ways to encourage them to use PPE correctly. Proper fit, critical to workers acceptance, is one of the biggest factors affecting PPE usage. Workers are most likely to comply with PPE protocols when the equipment is more comfortable to wear.

DISCUSSING COMPLIANCE
Observing work practices can lead to improvements in workplace safety enforcement, policies, and standards, and draw workers attention to the hazards present in the workplace. The findings have helped not only welding professionals but also benefited safety product manufacturers. Instructions help employers, workers, and safety managers evaluate their use of PPE during operations involving isocyanates, utilize effective wipe sampling evaluation methods, and implement proper housekeeping measures, including cleaning frequency and methods assessment. In response to the new instructions, safety managers and welders serving the automotive, aviation, and metal-manufacturing are discussing the various ways to address and mitigate the impact of isocyanates in the workplace in collaboration with safety product manufacturers.

FOUR QUESTIONS TO ASK
As part of this movement toward more innovative safety solutions, welding professionals should ensure they are asking the right questions in order to understand their particular safety needs. Here are four questions that should be asked.

What welding applications am I doing?                                                 
 A welder could be doing multiple types of welding, or more specific type of welding, such as arc welding, resistance welding, solid-state welding, etc. The various welding applications require different PPE to ensure the welder is fully protected from injuries. Welders should have the opportunities to openly discuss the various welding applications to determine the PPE that is most appropriate for their particular work tasks. These discussions will likely help determine the area of improvement to current PPE.

What are the lighting conditions in my work area?                         
The lighting conditions during a work task or in a specific work area (e.g. Ambient light, indoor vs outdoor lighting etc.) will have a significant impact on PPE selection. For example, lighting conditions are particularly important to determine the appropriate protective eyewear. Proper illumination when welding is also essential for the optimization of safety, comfort, and productivity. This is another occasion where welders can discuss ways to improve visibility without compromising vision protection and safety.

What else am I exposed to beyond physical environmental exposures?
 By asking this question, a welder can ensure he or she is taking all necessary precautions to identify and mitigate potentially harmful workplace exposures. For example, welders can experience occupational exposure to manganese in certain welding fumes. Exposure manganese may be harmful, especially while working in confined spaces such as storage tanks, pipeline, or airplane compartments. To minimize exposure, air-purification and welding-fume extraction systems can be implemented. By discussing  these possible solutions, there can be more effective strategies developed to reduce the impact or chance of exposure.

What additional ways can I protect myself and those around me by using proper PPE?                 This is an important question to ask before beginning any welding application, as well as when observing others working. By taking time to assess the PPE needed to be worn and the associated safe work practices, a welder is empowered and held accountable to identify any potential safety gaps in the workplace and adjust his or her PPE accordingly. This shift in thinking ensures safer actions are being taken. The promotion of this mindset also catalyzes the conversation between safety managers and workers and guides safety product manufacturers to develop improved PPE.

Saturday, 17 February 2018

WELDING IN HEAVY INDUSTRIES


Rapid technological developments & economies of scale in process plant industries has led to severe operating temperature and pressure conditions for reactors, pressure vessels, and heat exchangers. In the same way, all upcoming plants and equipment for nuclear, defense and aerospace industries are also getting bigger and more complex. To cope up with this trend, new generation materials are being developed worldwide, design aspects are becoming increasingly complex with very stringent quality and safety requirements. In addition, the delivery time is being squeezed to minimize the project cost. All these developments continuously pose new challenges to the welding technologists connected with heavy engineering industries worldwide.
Till the advent of the new century, Indian heavy engineering industries were mainly engaged in catering to the needs of domestic customers for equipment and accessories. In fact, many of the Indian customers were insisting Indian heavy engineering companies have a tie-up with international companies as a pre-request for qualification as a bidder. Similarly, international customers were not comfortable with Indian suppliers as far as supply of critical equipment was concerned. Some of the Indian heavy engineering industries took this up as a challenge to demonstrate that they were as good if not better then foreign fabricators.

Developments In Materials And Weldability

There is continuous development of materials for all the industries to improve process efficiency, reduce the weight of equipment, improve plant life and reduce plant maintenance/ shut down. Designers are coming up with a newer variety of materials thereby posing challenges in front of manufacturing industry to come up with suitable technology for processing the same.

Creep Resistant Cr-Mo Materials- Conventionally, creep resistant 2.25 Cr-1Mo material is very widely used in Refinery & Fertilizer applications up to 4500 C. Increase in temperature and pressure conditions and also susceptibility to hydrogen attack in such environment called for improved materials. Thus in the late 90's steelmakers came out with never variety of 2.25 Cr-1Mo material, known as vanadium modified 2.25 Cr-1Mo material. Use of these high strength materials helps in substantial reduction in vessel weight due to thickness reduction. Typically, changing the material from conventional 2.25 Cr-1Mo steel to 2.25 Cr-1Mo-0.25V steel will result in nearly 30% reduction in weight in a typical 1000MT reactor. This is a huge saving and as a result, all designers are changing over this new generation material to take advantage of this benefit.

Development In Welding Technology & Automation

Welding is one of the important operations in fabrications. Recent developments in design and operation have put a lot of challenges in front of welding engineers which has led to many innovations such as the introduction of new processes/ variants of processes, new techniques, mechanization and several others.

Quality and on-time delivery of equipment are the two most important requirements in today's globalized world. Therefore, fabricators are working towards more and more mechanization of welding operations. Some examples of mechanization of welding carried out by Indian Heavy engineering industries are:

Narrow Gap Saw: Most of the reactors and vessels manufactured nowadays are heavy wall thickness (>100mm). While welding of high thickness welds in such equipment, adoption of Narrow Gap SAW technique provides great advantages in terms of reduction in welding consumables and cycle time. In NG SAW, the sidewalls are nearly vertical (with 0.50 angle) and the top opening of the groove is as low as only 28~30mm irrespective of thickness. It is very important to get the welding operation 'first time right' since it is extremely difficult to carry out post weld repairs. Use of contractor non-contact type seam tracking devices and turning rollers with drift control is mandatory for successful welding of such joint. This technique has been successfully applied in welding high thickness Carbon, Cr-Mo and Stainless Steels. Narrow Gap Tandem SAWis one of the process variations of SAW, wherein two (or more) wires are fed from separate welding heads and power sources into the same weld puddle. Use of two wire Tandem SAW increases the productivity by about 90% and is regularly used by fabricators. Capability to weld up to 800 mm thick joints have been demonstrated by Indian fabricators.

Weld Overlay by ESW/SAW: for equipment operating with fluid which is corrosive, normally, inside surface of C-Mn or low alloy steel is cladded/ weld overlaid with corrosion resistant material. A typical reactor requires nearly 25MT of weld overlay (assuming 4.5mm thick weld overlay) to cover the entire inside surface of shell courses and heads. The requires development of high deposition welding techniques like Electro Slag Welding (ESW) or Submerged Arc Welding(SAW) using strip electrode. Welding is carried out by using strips of up to 120mm wide and 0.5mm thick, which results in deposition of 42 Kg/arc-hr. ESW overlay of stainless steel and nickel alloys are regularly carried out by Indian fabricators.
Weld Overlay of Nozzle Pipe/ Fittings by Mechanized Processes: all nozzle attachments in a clad/ overlayed reactor call for weld overlay on the inside surface as well as on the faces. Special welding torches to carry out weld overlay by mechanized FCAW, GTAW or Thin-wire SAW (1.2mm/1.6mm dia) inside nozzle pipes, forgings, and 900 elbows. Weld overlay has been carried out successfully on nozzles with a very small bore (as low as 25mm) and extra length (as high as 400mm) wear resistant overlay operations have also been carried out on OD of bars by Plasma Transferred Arc Welding(PTAW) Process.

Development In Quality Control & Assurance of Welded Constructions

Each weld joint of a vessel calls for stringent inspection and testing requirements as per the requirement of manufacturing code, customer specifications, and other applicable standards. The test generally includes Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) like Radiography (RT) Ultrasonic Test (UT), Magnetic Particle Test (MPT), & Penetrant Test (PT) in addition to the thorough visual examination. Out of these tests, RT & UT are given maximum importance. Due to the higher wall thickness of the vessels, RT is being preferably done using a high power Linear Accelerator (LINAC). On the other hand, Micro focal anode X-ray is being used for detection of a flaw in Tube to Tubesheet joints for critical nuclear applications.The concept in NDT has shifted from 'only flaw detection' to 'flaw detection, characterization and flaw sizing'. There is a huge advancement in UT technology over the last few years. His resolution UT including Time of Flight Diffraction (TOFD) has become a mandatory requirement for all critical reactor weld joints. Stringent requirements of nuclear and aerospace projects have taken capabilities in carrying out various NDT to its zenith.

Significant changes have taken place over the years in welding and allied areas in heavy industries in India. From making simple equipment with basics materials to fabricating the most complex ones involving stringent quality requirement, the Indian heavy engineering industry has envolved a lot. The industry has become mature and can compete globally for various orders, due to its demonstration capabilities in welding and allied fields.

Friday, 9 February 2018

BEST GRINDING PRACTICES FOR BETTER PERFORMANCE


Grinding is an internal part of many welding and fabrication applications. The grinding removes material, blend welds, shapes workpieces, and help prepare and clean surfaces, which can have a significant impact on the productivity, quality, and efficiency of welding jobs. Increasing the overall value of the labor put into a process can be done in two ways. The first is to ensure the product being used is right for the given application, which will improve productivity. Keeping the factors in mind, there are some product options, simple tips, and best practices that can help extend the life of the product and improve overall productivity.

SELECTING FROM A RANGE OF OPTIONS
Grinding all day is tough job and users are often looking for options to extend product life or increase grind rate, or combination of both. When demanding jobs must be done quickly and correctly, choosing the right product for the application can make a tremendous difference for the operator and the performance.

Grinding wheels and combination wheels are available in different performance tiers and compositions. Typically, those tiers are marketed as high performance (best), performance (better), and value (good) tiers. Within these general categories is a long list of specialty products, such as those designed not to contaminated stainless steel. Users need to think carefully about tools they use, the applications, the materials, the desired result, and their cost expectations so they can make the choice that is right for them.

Bonded abrasives- grinding and combination wheels for the purpose of this article- rely on a composition of the grain type, grain size, fiberglass, and bonding agents (resins and additive fillers) to determine performance via a given material.

Wheels come in a variety of grain types, including aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, zirconia alumina, ceramic alumina, and the combination of these materials. Bonded abrasive products made from different types of aluminum oxide are the most popular in the market and are good for many general purpose applications. Products made with a combination of ceramic and zirconia alumina, are higher priced in the market but will typically provide a better combination of overall life and material removal. This makes them a good choice for materials such as armored steel, structural steel, cast iron, and inconel.

Some bonded abrasive wheels developed for high performance feature a fiberglass layer that is cut back, which means the fiberglass layer on the face of the wheel is trimmed back. This exposes the grains to more aggressive grinding action at the initial point of contact. When the jobs call for grinding and cutting, a combination wheel is likely the best choice. Do some homework before buying one, though, because not all combination wheels are created equal. Understand how many layers of fiberglass are on the wheel and where they are located. Also, ask if the wheel is rated for cutting and grinding or just light grinding. Many products will not hold up to a true 50/50 combination of both, so pick the one that best fits the application needs. These are just some of the considerations in choosing the right combo wheel.

BEST RESULT FOR THE GRINDING PRACTICES
The type of product used can impact results in grinding applications. In addition, how the grinding wheel is used can also dramatically alter the results. Keep in mind some key tips and best practices to optimize outcomes in grinding.

Start with a pull-back motion: when beginning the grinding process, start with a pull-back motion rather than a push. This automatically sets the operator more level, so he or she is not digging into the materials as much. Starting with a pushing motion could result in digging into the material too much, especially if the work surface is uneven, which could require a costly and time- consuming repair.

Know the material: when grinding and cutting on general purpose steels, many product options will work, so try different products and see which one provides the best overall cost and performance value. When grinding stainless steel, look for a wheel labeled as INOX, which means its contaminant free and won't leave debris that may rust on the surface. This provides good performance and worry-free grinding on stainless steel.

Use optimal angle and pressure: typically, a grinding wheel should be used at a 15- to 35-degree angle to the work surface for the best performance. Pressure and how its applied is also important. The user should hold the grinder in a tight fixed position and use his or her body during the grinding motion instead of just the arms extending out, or so-called alligator arms. This allows for consistent pressure all the way through the grind and also helps avoid overworking the user's arms.

Match the size: when selecting the wheel size and material best suited for an application and the tool, operators can rely on manufacturer recommendations, product descriptions, and product rev/min rating to help make the choice. It's important to match the size and rev/min rating of the tool to the size and rev/min rating of the wheel for safe and effective usage. Always make sure the grinding wheel fits on the tool with the guard installed, and never remove the guard to put a larger diameter wheel on a tool.

Improving the productivity of the process and maximizing the labor put into that process can be done in several ways. These include changing the type of the product used and changing how a product is used. Knowing what product options are available and understanding they're intended use is an important part of getting the best results. Keeping these considerations in mind when selecting a bonded abrasive grinding wheel can help ensure the product is best suited for the application.

Saturday, 3 February 2018

WHAT DOES A PIPING DESIGNER NEED TO KNOW?


Piping Designer the document refers and responsible for the overall plant layout, plot plan, equipment location, pipe routing, developments of the CAD models and the piping isometrics.

PIPE FITTINGS, FLANGES, AND VALVES
All designers know and understand the broad spectrum of items that make up the vocabulary of the piping language. This includes the many types of fittings, many different schedules, the wide variety of common piping materials, the flange class rating and the types function of the different value designs.

RELATIONSHIPS OF OTHER ENGINEERING GROUPS

All designers need to know and understand the relationships, activities, and contributions of other engineering groups on the total project. It includes Civil, Structural mechanical equipment, vessels, and tanks, Electrical and instruments/ control systems. These groups have responsibility for contributing piping success.

PIPING EXECUTION
All piping designer must understand how the piping design development is progressed successfully and is linked with P&ID, equipment layout, equipment vendor drawings, instrument vendor drawings, stress analysis and heat treatment, hydro testing and air testing, NDE examinations and pipe support.

PROCESS DOCUMENTS
Process engineering team prepared two major documents. These are PFD and P&ID. PFD is prepared by more experienced piping designer early in the project for plot plan development before availability of P& ID. P & ID's are used for all levels of piping activities, the design of the lines and possible to field follow up.

PROCESS VARIABLES

All designers must know and understand the four process variables Temperature, Pressure, level and flow. The instrumentation used to control or measure these variables.

PROCESS PLANT EQUIPMENT

All designers need to know and understand the type of types of equipment and list of piping related issues for each type of equipment. They must know which type of equipment has the nozzles fixed by the manufacturer and which type of types of equipment need to have the nozzle located properly. The designer also can understand the operational, maintenance, and construction/ installation issues for each type of equipment.

EQUIPMENTS OPERATION AND INTERNALS

All piping designer must understand the equipment process function and equipment internals. In order to orientation process and instruments nozzles/ connections and locate manhole, platform, ladder with cage and staircase access.

EQUIPMENT PIPING
All piping designer must understand the proper installation of pumps, compressions, heat exchanges, filters or any special equipments on a specific piping project.

ALLOCABLE PIPING SPANS

All piping designers can understand the span capabilities of pipe (for a different schedule) for a wide variety of common piping materials. When a new project introduces new materials and reduced the span options.

EXPANSION OF PIPE
All piping designers must understand all piping system as in alive. It has a temperature causes grow and move.

ROUTING FOR FLEXIBILITY

All piping designers must understand how to route the pipe for flexibility. It means that do not travel a pipe in a straight line from the origin to terminate.

WEIGHT AND LOADS ( line loads & dead loads)

All piping designers must understand the effect of weight and loading. They must recognize the concentrated load on the piping system weight and fluid weight.

STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
All piping designers must understand the standards specifications of piping materials. The designer must be an intimate knowledge of the primary standards and specifications they will use.

VESSEL PIPING

All piping designers must understand the connecting members, supporting and guiding of pipe attached to the vessels and tanks. Nozzles loading and nozzles orientation are important and do have limitations.

RACK PIPING
All piping designers can understand that there is the logical or clear approach for the placements of pipe in a rack and be setting a rack elevation. In a pipe, the rack has multi decks are available. Another good guideline is obtained from the rack piping, process lines on the lower deck and utility lines on the upper deek. The spacing of the line is kept in a proper manner.

EXPANSION LOOPS

All piping designers must understand the methods of sizing loops in the pipe rack. The expansion loops are commonly used various sizes, schedules, and materials.

DESIGN PRODUCTION METHOD
All piping designers able to make all piping documents (sketches, layout, detailed piping plan, piping isometrics) by using different methods. The designer must be able to get to the site and make proper, intelligent and understandable piping sketch in front of a client. After that produce a final drawing with detailed measurements and make a wide range of electronic 2D or 3D design tools.

FABRICATION AND CONSTRUCTION METHODS

All piping designers must be able to understand about the shop fabrication like spool fabrication modularisation and field erection methods and able to vigilant in shop and field materials splits, shipping box sizes, field welds, and fit-up welds.

HEAT TRAINING

All piping designers must understand the different type heat tracing of line pipe ( jacketing, tracer tubing or electric)

DELIVERABLES

All piping designers must understand the deliverables like plot plans, key plans, piping plans and sections and isometrics.

DRAWING CONTENTS
All piping designers must understand about their drawing contents dimensioning practices. It needs to clear communications to construction personnel.
The team piping designer refers that the person responsible for the overall plant layout, plot plan, equipments location, pipe routing, development of the CAD models and piping isometrics. It does not refer piping materials and stress engineer. They are involved in the design of a piping system.

Saturday, 27 January 2018

WHAT IS PIPING ENGINEERING LEAD NEED TO KNOW?

Piping engineering guides the person who has their duties and responsibility for all piping engineering and designing activities as a procedure plant project. The duties and responsibilities of the PEL are depending upon the Engineering company, The client for the project, the type of the project and project performance philosophy and the construction philosophy.

The following are the activities of PEL and responsibilities.
  1. Participate the proposal team in pre-bid meeting with client and proposal development.
  2. Exploring the physical scope of the piping effort for the project.
  3. Preparing total labor hour estimate for the piping effort.
  4. Preparing the total cost of estimated piping items.
  5. Preparing overall piping discipline, coordinated and compatible with other engineering disciplines
  6. Total activities of piping plan
  7. Preparing data records for total engineering disciplines
  8. Maximum use of resources (manpower)
  9. Awareness expenditure for people or works.
  10. Great accurate status report.
  11. Periodically proper project completion and close out.

ROLE AND RESPONSIBILITIES

Each and every PEL person should accept the role and responsibilities of the position. This position is the most top position in the piping design. The position is the most top position in each discipline. There is normally seven discipline on a major process plant project. A Sevier person is led up to each discipline.

DIPLOMACY

The PEL is doing direct contact with many other engineering groups. PEC needs to be able to understand the roles of each group and able to discuss mutual needs and contributions.

CO-ORDINATIONS

All discipline leaders need to know about their own responsibilities and coordinate each group for successful implementation and contributions of piping.

COACHING

During the project, any technical problems will be raised from any disciplines, the PEL should be assigned to solve the problem.

ORGANISATION

PEL needs to organize every aspect of the piping project. It includes communication, space, computers, and staff.

CHEERLEADER

The duty of Cheer Leader is to motivate all members of the piping groups from the first day to the last day of the project.

GENERAL

General means to take a charge. Provide directly to make subgroups of the piping and give all the pieces of information and advise.

PLANNER/VISIONARY

The first most important responsibilities of PCL is making knowledge about how to develop a project scope of work (SOW). SOW is aims 'Target'. Developing a sow requires the ability takes place from start to finish of the project and requires the ability to see into the future.

ESTIMATOR

The estimator is the supervisor of the four subgroups need to be able to develop definitive labor hour or man hours for all activities of the project. This labor hour is approved by the project client.

SCHEDULE

The schedule also needs to be able to develop a definitive control level schedule for all the activities.

IMPORTANCE OF PIPING INSPECTION

These are the very important aspects or a summary of points for the process piping inspection and should not be assumed as the entire piping inspection procedure.
A piping inspection procedure is a universal document, which needs to enclose inspection methods to be employed, the usage of types of equipment and materials etc.
These are the following points for the service in piping inspections system.
  • To generate the piping inventory list indicating the pipe specification class, line number, rating, schedule, pipe origin location (from) and pipe destination location (to)
  • To generate piping isometric sketches to forward inspection and the recording of corrosion monitoring locations (CMLs)
  • Dividing the whole unit of piping into piping circuits based on the process of their condition and potential degradation mechanism
  • Select the appropriate NDE techniques for each piping circuit based on the circuit damage mechanism
  • Identification of CMLs points in piping isometric sketches based on the potential for general or localized corrosion and service-specific damage mechanisms

Thursday, 18 January 2018

STEP INTO DYNAMIC CAREER WITH MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING METHOD

The global of NDT is the very confusing place, even for the most experienced Technicians/Engineers. So many methods, certification and so much accountability and responsibility for companies and individuals alike.
Magnetic particle testing is one of the most important non-destructive testing techniques used by many industries.This testing recognizes the interior imperfections in ferromagnetic substances like cobalt, and some of their alloys, iron, and steel etc. This is only one of the little kinds of Non-destructive testing skill and is so named since the materials and products are analyzed or study without equipment casualty. From the element in bridges to high performance, magnetic particle testing is used to identify the defective parts before they are put to use. Using the wrong implementation to match the component is the main source of incorrect testing. To understand the main problems relating to magnetic particle testing may go a long way toward allowing repeat phenomenon. The only requirements are that the product inspected must be made of ferromagnetic materials. We are offering Magnetic Particle Testing NDT training courses in our center.

How does magnetic particle testing work?

The concept is literally simple. Any metal or object that is magnetized will be surrounded by an invisible magnetic field. If there is any defect – like crack, space or a hole in the metal object the defect will cause an interference in the magnetic field. Magnetic particle testing allows you to get clearly see that disruption and then identify the defect.

Which Equipment is used for Magnetic Particle Testing?

These are the types of equipment which are used for magnetic particle testing
Whether equipment for wet or dry method
Magnetization requirements (AC or DC)
Demagnetization- incorporated or separate unit
Degree of automation
Amperage required
Line voltage requirements
Air supply requirement
Accessories needed or required.

Which Industries can use magnetic particle inspection?

1.  Structural steel industry
2. Petrochemical industry
3.   Aerospace industry
4.  Power generation industry
5. Automotive industry

Certification

In order to perform NDT extensively in all industrial applications, certification is mandatory. The certification is made in line with SNT-TC-1A of ASNT which is explained in detail.
ASNT- AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING
SNT-TC-1A- Society for Non-destructive testing(SNT)
                     Technical Council (TC)
                     First Document(1A)
The document published by ASNT provides guidelines for the establishment of qualification and certification program. This will help the candidates in qualifying, a person engaged in any of the NDT methods. This is not a strict specification. So this can be modified according to the requirements.

What are the levels of qualification

There are three levels of qualification. They are
NDT LEVEL-1
NDT LEVEL-2
NDT LEVEL-3


Target consumers

The usage of Magnetic particle testing is at some point in a manufacturing life cycle from an introductory form of the ingots to the finishing wrought or welded products after the item has been placed in service.

Customer service

The involvement of modern industry and the requirement for secure and more genuine products and equipment dictates the utilization of fabrication and testing methodology that protect maximum reliability. Magnetic particle testing can be applied properly provide:

1. Increased product usage and reliability
2. Identifying problems at the right time to improved production processes so that they can be corrected properly
3. To minimize the costs in terms of so many returned items and to make changes in that items.
4. Quality improvement

Why attend this course?

Candidates should have the opportunity to utilize a huge diversification of materials, castings, welds, and products on this academic and practical course. This course is highly suitable for beginners and also NDT experienced candidates.We are also provide excellent training and preparation for examinations.