Saturday, 13 October 2018

Oil Refinery


The crude oil industry converts rock oil into quite 2500 refined merchandise, as well as liquefied crude gas, gasoline, kerosene, aviation fuel, diesel oil, fuel oils, lubricating oils, and feed stocks for the organic compound business. Industrial refinery activities begin with receipt of crude for storage at the refinery, embody all crude handling and processing operations, and that they terminate with storage preceding to shipping the refined merchandise from the works. The crude oil industry employs a good type of processes. A refinery’s process flow theme is essentially determined by the composition of the rock oil feedstock and therefore the chosen slate of crude merchandise. The primary innovate crude processing operations is that the separation of rock oil into its major constituents victimization three crude separation processes: Atmospherical distillation, vacuum distillation, and lightweight ends recovery (gas processing). Rock oil consists of a combination of organic compound compounds as well as paraffinic, naphthenic, and aromatic hydrocarbons with little amounts of impurities as well as sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, and metals. Works separation processes separate these rock oil constituents into common boiling-point fractions. To satisfy the stress for high-octane hydrocarbon, jet fuel, and diesel oil, elements like residual oils, fuel oils, light-weight ends are born-again to gasolines and different light fractions. Cracking, coking, and visbreaking processes are accustomed break giant crude molecules into smaller ones. Polymerization and alkylation processes are accustomed mix little crude molecules into larger ones. Changeover and reforming processes are applied to set up the structure of crude molecules to provide higher-value molecules of an identical molecular size. Crude treating processes stabilize and upgrade crude merchandise by separating them from less fascinating merchandise and by removing objectionable components. Undesirable components like sulfur, nitrogen, and are removed by hydro desulfurization, hydro treating, chemical sweetening, and acid gas removal. Treating processes, utilized primarily for the separation of crude merchandise, embody such processes as de asphalting. Desalting is employed to get rid of salt, minerals, grit, and water from rock oil feed stocks before processing. Asphalt processing is employed for polymerizing and stabilizing asphalt to enhance its weathering characteristics. 
The works feedstock and products handling operations accommodates unloading, storage, blending, and loading activities. A good assortment of processes and instrumentation indirectly concerned within the processing of rock oil is employed in functions important to the operation of the works. Examples are boilers, waste water treatment facilities, H plants, cooling towers, and sulfur recovery units. Merchandise from auxiliary facilities (clean water, steam, and method heat) are needed by most method units throughout the works. Method flow schemes, emission characteristics, and emission management technology are mentioned for every method. Lidded crude withdrawn from very cheap atmospherical distillation column consists of high boiling-point hydrocarbons. Once distilled at atmospherical pressures, the rock oil decomposes and polymerizes and can foul instrumentation. To separate lidded crude into elements, it should be distilled in a vacuum column at a very low and in an exceedingly steam atmosphere. Customary crude fractions withdrawn from the vacuum distillation column embody fill up distillates, vacuum oil and gas course in kerala, asphalt stocks, and residual oils. The vacuum within the vacuum distillation column is sometimes maintained by the employment of steam ejectors however could also be maintained by the employment of vacuum pumps. The most important sources of atmospherical emissions from the vacuum distillation column are related to the steam ejectors or vacuum pumps. A serious portion of the vapours withdrawn from the column by the ejectors or pumps is recovered in condensers.

Saturday, 29 September 2018

Welding


Welding is a process in which two or more parts are joined permanently at their touching surfaces by the force of heat and/or pressure. Often a filler material is added that helps in the merging. The parts that are joined together by welding are called a weldment. Factors affecting Weld-ability 1. Melting Point 2. Thermal conductivity 3. Thermal Expansion 4. Surface condition 5. Change in Micro structure. Welding is mainly used in metal parts and their alloys. Welding is of two types : Fusion welding and Solid state welding.1 Fusion welding : In this the base metal is melted by means of heat. Ina fusion welding operation, a filler metal is added to the molten pool to facilitate the process and provide bulk and strength to the joint. The most commonly used fusion welding processes are: arc welding, resistance welding, oxyfuel welding, electron beam welding and laser beam welding. 2. Solid-state welding: In this method joining of parts takes place by the application of pressure or a combination of heat and pressure. No filler metal is used in this . The most commonly used solid-state welding processes are: diffusion welding, friction welding, ultrasonic welding. Arc welding is a method of permanently joining two or more metal parts. It consists of combination of different welding processes wherein merging is done by heating with an electric arc, (mostly without the application of pressure) and with or without the use of filler metals that again depends upon the base plate thickness. A joint is achieved by melting and fusing the adjacent portions of the separate parts. The finally welded joint has a strength approximately equal to that of the base material. 

The arc temperature is maintained approximately at 4400°C. To prevent oxidation, a flux material is used which decomposes under the heat of welding and releases a gas that shields the arc and the hot metal. Precautions in Arc welding courses in kerala 1. Due to the intensity of heat and light rays from the electric arc, the operator’s hand face and eyes are to be protected while arc is in use 2. Heavy gloves are worn 3. Hand shield or a helmet with window of coloured glass must be used to protect the face 4. The space for the electric arc welding should be screened off from the rest of the building to safeguard other workmen from the glare of the arc.The second basic method employs an inert gas to form a protective envelope around the arc and the weld. The commonly used gases are Helium, argon, and carbon dioxide . Other processes that are used in the industry are as follows: 1. Diffusion bonding (DB): in this method parts are pressed together at an elevated temperature below the melting point for a period of time. 2. Explosion welding (EXW): In this method the parts to be welded are driven together at an angle with the help of an explosive charge and fuse together from the friction of the impact. 3. Ultrasonic welding (USW) for metals: This process makes use of transverse oscillation of one part against the other to develop sufficient frictional heat for fusion to occur. 4. Electro slag (ESW) and Electro gas (EGW) processes: In these a molten pool of weld metal contained by copper “shoes” is used to make vertical butt welds in heavy plate.

Monday, 17 September 2018

RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING

Different forms of Radiographic testing are :
Fluoroscopy: In a fluorescent salt screen  the image of the test specimen can be visually seen. The X rays passing through the object excite the fluorescent material producing bright spots in the more heavily irradiated areas. The fluorescent screen may be viewed directly or by means of a mirror or by using a camera and a closed circuit television. t 10 mm thickness, thin metal parts, welded assemblies and coarse sandwich constructions are screened by this method and castings with obvious large defects are rejected before usual inspection using film radiography.
Micro radiography: Micro-radiography is mainly applied in metallurgical studies. The radiograph when enlarged gives the structural details of the specimen.
Enlargement radiography: In some situations an enlarged image of an object is desired. To get the enlargement of the image the object to film distance is increased. To overcome the penumbral effects a source of an extremely small size is used.
High speed or flash radiography : for the radiography of moving objects, the exposure time should be very small and, at the same time, the intensity of the X rays should be extremely high. This is achieved by discharging huge condensers through special X ray tubes which give current of the order of thousands of amperes for a short time (of the order of a millionth of a second). This technique is normally applied in ballistics.
Auto radiography: In this case the specimen itself contains the material in radioactive form. When a film is placed in contact with the specimen, an autoradiograph is obtained showing the distribution of the radioactive material within the specimen. The technique is mainly used in the field of botany and metallurgy.
Electron transmission radiography : a beam of high energy X rays is used to produce photoelectrons from a lead screen. These electrons after passing through the specimen (of very low absorption like paper, etc.) expose the film and an electron radiograph is obtained. 
 Electron emission radiography: In this case a beam of X rays is used to produce photoelectrons from the specimen itself. These electrons expose the film which is placed in contact with the specimen. Since emission of electrons depends upon atomic number of an element, the electron emission will give the distribution of elements of different atomic numbers. 
Neutron radiography: In this case a neutron beam is used to radiograph the specimen. The recording system will, therefore, not be a photosensitive film since it is insensitive to neutrons. The following methods are used to record the image
Proton radiography : For special type of studies a proton beam can also be used. The number of protons transmitted through a specimen whose thickness is close to the proton range is very sensitive to exact thickness. This helps in detecting very small local variations in density and thickness.
 Stereo radiography : Two radiographs of the specimen are taken from two slightly different directions. The angle between these directions is the same as the angle subtended by the human eyes while viewing these radiographs. In the stereo viewer the left eye sees one radiograph and the right eye the other. In this way a realistic three dimensional effect is obtained giving the visual assessment of the position of the defect.
Xeroradiography : This is considered as a "dry" method of radiography in which a xerographic plate takes the place of X ray film. The plate is covered with a selenium powder and charged electrostatically in the dark room. Exposure to light or radiation causes the charge to decay in proportion to the amount of radiation received and a latent image is formed.

Thursday, 13 September 2018

NON – DESTRUCTIVE TESTING


Adequate NDT and inspection by suitably qualified personnel is very much essential during all stages of pipe manufacture, construction and operation. The newly used inspection methods and equipment assist in obtaining the maximum life expectancy from a pipeline reducing the overall operating costs. Fluoroscopy, computed radiography, digital radiography and automated ultrasonic testing helps in improving the probability of detection (POD) of discontinuities. Modern NDT methods have become more quantitative and less obtrusive, which many a time, results in saving over time. Thus it can be said these advanced NDT methods have the potential that could lead to significantly lower repair rates while maintaining existing safety standards .

The Radiation detectors that used are image intensifiers in fluoroscopic and real time imaging systems The equipment that is used to perform Radiographic inspection can be either an X-ray machine or a radioactive isotope that produces gamma radiation. The isotopes help in increased portability as no electrical power supply is required. Electronic imaging panels and phosphorescent imaging screens are used to create digital images for computed and digital radiography. Real time imaging can be used close to the welding station and can detect all the defects at an early stage thus reducing the number of faulty welds produced. Phosphorescent imaging plates in digital radiography replaces X-ray film and processing chemicals. They can be used again and the X-ray images are stored electronically on optical disc. These images can be electronically enhanced to increase or reduce density leading to discontinuities which may have been previously . The phosphorescent imaging screens are flexible and are used in conventional x-ray film. The phosphorescent screens store a latent image which is scanned with an infrared laser scanner and are then viewed on a monitor. Magnification and measuring tools are then used for further evaluation of images. The use of phosphorescent screens require shorter exposure time which can amount to considerable savings.
The primary benefit of UT is that it is a truly volumetric test which means it is capable of determining not only the approximate dimensions and location of a defect, it also provides information to the testing technician regarding the type of defect. Another major advantage of UT is that it requires access to one side of the material to be tested and it will best detect crack’s and incomplete fusion which may not be possible with Radiographic testing. Since a variety of beam angles can be used, UT can detect defect which may not be detectable by radiography .UT requires highly skilled technicians because interpretation of indications are difficult. Reference standards are used for calibration and setting up of the equipment. Test scans can be recorded by equipments providing automated scanning. This test method is generally limited to the inspection of butt welds of materials that are thicker than 6 mm. Automated UT is used in pipe mills where the welds are inspected by a multiple array of probes, scanning the entire weld and detecting any discontinuities at an early stage. AUT is an in-field test method. An array of probes mounted in a scanner are placed on the pipe and the weld area is scanned. An encoder records the probe position with respect to the distance traveled, which allows the weld to be tested in a shorter period of time, resulting in a complete volumetric test of the weld and reducing the number of errors.

Monday, 3 September 2018

IMPACT OF CRUDE OIL TRANSPORT


The increase in crude oil shipments results in environmental and safety risks from accidents that may occur along pipelines, rail lines, waterways and at transshipment sites. All of these modes pose certain risks and each has certain advantages compared with the other modes All the modes of crude oil transport pose potential risks to the environment, public health and safety. All modes of crude oil transport have advantages and disadvantages based on a range of operational, economic and environmental factors and considerations. Modes of transport like railroads, vessels, barges and trucks can carry less of oil in comparison to the pipelines, but their routes are more flexible, allowing oil industry shippers to respond more quickly to changing production locations and volumes and changes in demand from coastal refineries Risk may range from a modest spill on isolated rural land in the winter (limiting ground contamination) to a major catastrophic spill in large water bodies or a derailment-produced spill and fire in a major urban area. Different types of oil influence the mode or modes of transportation chosen and the risks associated with those choices .Manufacturing industries that rely both on oil for their operations and water for their industrial processes and could be impacted by oil spills . A spill in an important and sensitive region can have far-reaching consequences, including both the damage created by the oil itself and the effect of intensive cleanup efforts, which can compound the environmental impacts in ecologically sensitive areas.

A pipeline oil spill, when one occurs, can have severe and long lasting impacts on public health, the environment and regional economy .The age and quality of the pipeline infrastructure are important factors in assessing oil spill risk from this mode .Pipelines result in fewer oil spill incidents and personal injuries than road and rail, and large spills in the recent past shows that the overall impact of a spill on the environment, economy and human health can be serious. Over time the quality of pipeline declines due to structural degradation, cracks caused by corrosion, defective welding or incidental damage from third-party activities. Damages to pipeline infrastructure may contribute to increased risks of a pipeline spill. Pipelines require regular maintenance inspections and constant monitoring during operation. Accidents may occur from undetected structural or mechanical failure and made worse by insufficient or delayed monitoring. Ships and barges pose fewer risks in transporting hazardous liquids than trains and trucks, and have economic advantages over these modes of transport, as well .A barge or tanker ships containing crude oil may undergo severe structural damage and spill cargo as the result of a collision with another ship. The increased volume of rail transport has also led to a rise in oil spill incidents involving trains .Unmonitored crossing points are special risk zones where accidents with automobiles can increase the risk of an oil spill or explosion. Even improperly assembled trains are more susceptible to derailment .Trucks are primarily used to transport oil for relatively short distances because long distance transport by truck is not ordinarily an economical option. Since large trucks are used to transport oil to and from railway transshipment facilities and pipelines, poorly maintained and monitored infrastructure at delivery points and fuel loading terminals could contribute to accidents, including fire and explosion.
Diploma in Oil and Gas Engineering

Tuesday, 14 August 2018

ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF OIL AND GAS

Exploration and production of fossil fuel, have caused several damaging impacts to soils, surface and groundwater and ecosystems These impacts arose primarily from the improper disposal of huge volumes of saline water created with oil and gas, from accidental organic compound and produced-water releases, and from abandoned oil wells that were orphan or not properly blocked .The  Impact of  the   surface level effect within the location of  several acres per well, can even arise from connected activities like web site clearance, construction of roads, tank batteries, brine pits and pipelines, and alternative improvement in land is  necessary for the drilling,exploration and production wells and construction of production facilities. New environmental laws and improved trade practices and technology have reduced the foremost damaging effects of fossil fuel activities. Additionally, some operators have taken steps, sometimes voluntarily, to reverse damages ensuing from fossil fuel operations. Oil and Gas Courses in Kerala.
During drilling, a drilling fluid is unceasingly circulated between the well and also the platform through a ‘riser pipe’. Mud is used to keep a check on the  well pressure and wall stability, to chill and lubricate the bit and to hold the rock chips (cuttings) generated throughout the drilling method far away from the cutting head to the platform. Here, the cuttings area unit part clean and also the majority of drill mud re-used. Mud is  available in a range of forms, passionate about their fluid base. Amongst these are  water primarily {based} mud and oil based mud . Within the past, the majority of clean OBM cuttings were discharged to the bottom together with their residual oily mud contamination. This caused changes to the bottom via a mix of suffocating, organic enrichment and toxicity effects. These were seen to be most severe near to discharging platforms wherever the ‘pile proper’ fashioned, however they ordinarily extended up to a distance of one or two kilometer. These discharges are not any longer allowed. Workers  investigate the likelihood of hydrocarbons being present under the seabed using high intensity sound (seismic surveys).  Species of fish  that are meant for commercial purpose are sensitive to sound and, at close range, larval fish might even be killed by seismic sources. Seismal surveys would possibly thus disturb spawning fish faraway from territory wherever they need chosen to mixture for spawning functions and this might, in extreme circumstances, be harmful to stock productivity, worrying fish faraway from ancient areas may additionally have an effect on fishermen’s catches.
During production, giant amounts of created water  are recovered with hydrocarbons. This can be clean to terribly rigorous standards and a few is re-injected to take care of reservoir pressure. Usually Chemicals of different types are  being used for  treating  the oil, gas and water that is gathered from offshore reservoirs. These are regulated under a harmonized mandatory control scheme. The bulk, however, has historically been discharged to ocean. As fields age and because the amounts of oil remaining fall, the amounts of PW increase. A large kind of chemicals is employed to treat the oil, gas and water that's gathered from offshore reservoirs. Oil and Gas Courses in Kerala.

Tuesday, 7 August 2018

OIL DRILLING


After an organisation determines that an area has enough resources to explore, leases area unit purchased from mineral rights owners (where applicable), permits area unit issued by the state, and conjointly the well pad and access roads area unit created. Drilling may be a comparatively well-understood in technological method however no 2 wells in an unit area are constant and thus risk management is vital. The biggest thought concern with drilling is that the risk of blowouts, that is that the uncontrolled unleash of oil and gas from a well .But a high level of effort is needed by operators and regulators to make sure this doesn't happen. Additionally to that a large array of drilling activities may cause adverse environmental impacts. The bottom clearing will have adverse effects on the ecological surroundings. Air quality and waste management from construction and through drilling is a difficulty. The rise of vehicle and traffic conjointly creates a sway on the native setting. Unconventional O&G drilling then yield in a pair of major phases: directional drilling and well stimulation. Oil and gas courses in kerala
Directional Drilling: the method begins by drilling to all-time low of a water formation. It pulls the loose rocks and the sediment to the surface to be discarded (i.e., drilling muds).Surface casing (steel piping) is inserted into the bore hole to protect recent formations by creating a physical barrier between the geological formation and drilling materials. This casing together may be a foundation for the blowout preventer – a security device that connects the rig to the wellbore. Cement comes out through the casing and out through the gap at all-time low of the casing. The force pushes the cement into the casing and the hole, thus protecting the wellbore from the water. Drilling continues vertically, creating a well 1,828 m deep. The depth of the well will vary by region and formation. Among the Marcellus rock the well is then trained horizontally a 3,048 meters. The casing is inserted once the desired length is achieved. The drilling methodology is presently complete and well stimulation can begin.
Stimulation of well : A gun used for piercing is pushed into the horizontal portion of the well, where electrical current originating from the surface triggers a charge that shoots small holes through the casing and cement. Inside the case , huge volume of water, fracking fluid/chemicals, and sand area unit then tense into the well to fracture the rock formation and unleash the hydrocarbons keep tightly within the rock. In some formations, acidizing is the foremost well-liked stimulation technique. Ohio wells use virtually fifteen, 600 gallons of HCl; American state, 5,100-7,700 gallons. Many sand or proppant, and thousands of gallons of frack fluid area unit then tense into the bottom at terribly high pressures therefore on fracture the rock and unleash gas and/or oil2. Oil can then flow up the well to the surface, at the facet of flow back fluid consisting of variable proportions of the injected fluids, and various liquids from the rock layer like salt-saturated water, drilling muds, or brine. These fluids area unit tense into a waiting pool (impoundment) or in closed storage tanks where the liquid waste area unit reaching to be either recycled and used at another website or disposed of keep with restrictive standards specific to the state throughout that they are disposed. Oil and gas Institute

Monday, 30 July 2018

OIL DRILLING SAFETY


Injuries to oil and gas field service staff occur at double the speed as for general business staff and, of this cluster. The oil and gas drilling employees are exposed to even larger dangers because of the character of this kind of labour. It is vital for drilling operators, within the absence of strict pointers, to confirm that drilling activities are conducted in a safe manner. A sound safety program helps guard against drilling accidents that might cause environmental harm furthermore as injure staff. An honest safety program conjointly has the other advantages of lower insurance rates, lower maintenance prices, fewer worker edges claims, less lost production or productivity, and fewer legal fees and settlements. A number of the foremost common accidents related to drilling need to do with operating the slips, tongs, cat-lines, and elevators that area unit wont to handle the drill pipe, and alternative significant drilling instrumentation. Slippery rig floors and cable breaks conjointly contribute to accidents. Injuries are common either from falling or being hit by swinging objects. Most accidents includes harmful events like blowouts or the collapse of the derrick or mast. Worker coaching programs area unit a vital part of accident interference. Accidents are also reduced once the staff is trained properly, well orientated, impelled and preserved to become career oil field workers. Coaching of workers ought to embody data regarding basic principles of a well drilling operation:
  1. The safe work operations and hazards related to the task.
  2. Purpose and operation of drilling instrumentation,
  3. Sulphide detection and safety instrumentation furthermore as emergency procedures
  4. Fireplace protection and management,
  5. Emergency escape procedures for workers functioning on the derrick mast or in confined areas
  6. Data regarding personal protecting instrumentation. Workers clothing ought to be fitted (not loose) and embody long sleeves and pant legs.
It's conjointly wise that staff not wear jewellery, that hair be short or tied-back, and safety shoes, hard hats, goggles, face shields for fastening, safety glasses and/or hearing protection be worn as per requirement. Worker protection against falls conjointly wants attention. Measures like safety belts, lifelines and lanyards of appropriate strength, safety nets for work areas over 25' off the bottom and ladders in situ of "riding" mounting devices ought to be put in to safeguard employees within the event of a fall.
Precautionary measures for the work would come with correct lighting for performing at night, and therefore the prohibition of flame heaters in doghouses or outbuildings. Drill sites have to be compelled to have no-smoking space designations and fireplace and explosion protection instrumentation. Fire fighting instrumentation must get on hand. Responsibilities of individual staff in such an incident area unit to be announce within the doghouse. Additionally, the native department of local government should be referred to as within the event of a blowout. It's conjointly suggested that operators build regular operational tests of blowout preventers associated conduct coaching so as to be ready within the case of an accident. Mere blowout preventers area unit needed, they ought to be motivated and tested with rig air or another approved methodology before drilling out the shoe of the surface casing. Oil and gas courses in kerala .

Tuesday, 24 July 2018

EXPLORATION AND EVALUATION


Exploration is that the elaborated examination of an area with a mineral interest. Generally, the geographic area has incontestable sufficient potential to justify any exploration to determine whether or not oil and gas square measure gift in business quantities. The activities concerned in exploration square measure kind of like those within the pre‐license prospecting section, but they're typically concentrated on a smaller geographic area. Exploration activities square measure varied ,however square measure may include conducting geographics, geological, geochemical, and geology studies and preliminary drilling. In general exploring the possibility of petroleum involves techniques like conducting seismographic studies, core drilling, and ultimately, if alternative styles of exploration have indicated a sufficient chance that crude exists in business quantities, the drilling of exploratory wells so as to see whether or not business reserves really existed.
The process of analysis involves confirming and finding the presence and extent of reserves that are indicated by previous G&G testing and preliminary drilling. Preliminary wells may have found the presence of petroleum but, analysis and appraisal are typically necessary so as to justify the capital expenditures associated with the event and production of the reserves—in different words confirming that the reserves are industrial. Specifically, when Associate in Nursing preliminary well or multiple preliminary wells are trained into a reservoir and have resulted within the discovery of oil and/or gas reserves, extra wells, called appraisal wells, may be trained to achieve info regarding the dimensions and characteristics of the reservoir, to help in assessing its industrial potential, and to raised estimate the recoverable reserves. Additionally to drilling appraisal wells and presumably more geologic and geology testing, the appraisal and evaluation part usually includes conducting careful engineering studies to see the character and extent of the reserves and therefore the formulation of an inspiration for developing and manufacturing the reserves in order to get most recovery. promoting studies may additionally be necessary, particularly within the case of gas discoveries, so as to guage transportation prices and value potential. In U.S. operations, particularly in areas with a history of production, once associated in Nursing preliminary well finds reserves, the oil and public utility might in short measure the results of drilling so move directly into development.Oil and gas courses in kerala.
This is significantly probably in onshore operations in locations wherever associate degree existing transportation and marketing infrastructure exists. In U.S. domestic offshore operations, the market and transportation infrastructure might also be in place; but, drilling of further wells is also necessary so as to determine whether or not the reserves are capable of construction of a production platform, additional pipelines, and/or onshore facilities to handle the assembly. If further wells are trained in order to work out whether or not reserves are sufficient to justify putting in the mandatory infrastructure, they are typically treated as a section of the exploration part. In operations outside the US, the appraisal and analysis part is additional probably to be necessary and is probably going to far better outlined. PSC and risk service agreements typically specify sure appraisal activities that has got to be administrated by the contractor within the event that associate degree beta well indicates the presence of reserves. In these kinds of agreements, rather than appraisal activities being defined as a separate part, they're typically outlined as a particular set of activities occurring throughout the exploration part.

Sunday, 15 July 2018

REFINERY AND PIPELINE IN INDIA


Indian firms are increasing plant capability and coming up with several green-field refineries. The oil majors of the world are seriously evaluating investments in India. Recently Bharat Petroleum declared the understanding for forming a venture with HPCL (Hindustan oil Corporation Ltd.) for a grassroots refinery. RIL has conjointly declared their interest in increasing processing capability from thirty three MMTPA to fifty MMTPA. India has ambitions to become the hub for oil product exports. Demand for oil product within the Asia Pacific region is calculable to be around twenty five to twenty seven million barrels per day (1.2-1.3 billion tonnes per year) in the year 2010. China with a requirement of around nine million barrels per day (447 million tonnes per year) and Japan at 5.2 million barrels per day (260 million tonnes per year) are expected to dominate future demand for energy product. However, the processing capability within the Asia Pacific region is expected to extend from the present twenty 1.9 million barrels per day (1.09 billion tonnes per year) to a most of twenty five million barrels per day within the year 2010 (Source : business Sources). The export potential in addition to the additional capability additions and new refineries offer a singular opportunity for potential investors. The chance exists within the type of investment in capability additions to the present refineries and forming consortium with non-public and NOCs to line up new refineries. Oil and gas courses in Kerala.
Major oil and organic compound firms would realize chance to partner with NOCs in their green field and enlargements. Further, equipment and technology suppliers will contribute to those that come with their specialized offerings with reference to engineering services, automation, IT, equipment etc. Under the steering of Ministry of fossil oil & Natural Gas and NOCs viz. Indian Oil and HPCL have decided on conducting experiments with numerous mixtures of bio diesel with diesel in State Transport buses in Haryana, Gujarat and urban center. Indian Oil has conjointly signed a MoU with Indian Railways for plantation of Jatropha curcus on railway land. In October 2005, the MoPNG has announced a bio-diesel purchase policy that comes into result from 1.1.2006. As per the policy the NOCs shall purchase bio-diesel of prescribed BIS specification from registered authorized suppliers through twenty purchase centers at a regular worth of US $ .55 per metric capacity unit. The acquisition price would be reviewed by the oil firms each six months with due consideration to plug conditions. Small and medium entrepreneurs would find opportunities in Bio-diesel conversion.
Crude and refined product pipeline infrastructure across the country would need to grow as works capacities grow. As per the present plan, crude and refined product pipeline infrastructure would increase between 4,065 km and 15,788 kilometer . As per the Tenth set up document of designing Commission, gas pipeline investments to the order of US$ 4.6 – 5.7 billion are expected within the plan amount ending 2007. The extra gas currently found within the kilogram basin on the eastern coast is predicted to be monetised between 2008 and 2011, for which extra pipeline investments are predicted. This demand of increase within the pipeline infrastructure within the country would give opportunities for the international gas (transportation) corporations, engineering corporations, EPC contractors and vendors of pipeline and equipments. Oil and Gas Institute

Tuesday, 10 July 2018

UPSTREAM, MIDSTREAM,DOWNSTREAM COMPANIES IN OIL INDUSTRY


Oil industry is divided into upstream, midstream and downstream companies.
Upstream: Companies that are involved in exploration and production of crude oil which mean extracting crude oil from subsurface are called upstream companies. Many national companies and private companies come under this category. They are mainly into  searching for potential underground and under water crude oil and natural gas fields, obtaining permission from the land owners to drill, drilling exploratory wells and then drilling ,conducting geological surveys and operating the wells that recover and bring the crude oil to the surface.
 Midstream companies: These are companies that purchase crude oil from the upstream companies. They further refine it to usable form. They follow the fractional distillation method to produce by products like kerosene, petrol,diesel etc.Refineries come under this category.
Downstream companies: They are involved in the process of purchasing product from midstream companies and sell it to the retailers.Oil marketing companies like Hindustan petroleum and Bharat petroleum come under this category.
Companies that come under the midstream and downstream have started playing the role of both hence categorizing companies is very difficult.Oil and gas courses.
The upstream industry requires huge amount of money to build the structure and maintain it. Maintenance is a fraction of the investment but is expensive. The upstream section involves a lot of risk and is rewarding at the same time. Political instability and seasonal weather patterns affect this sector. This sector is regulated by government and environmental entities. There is a visible change in the technology and hence the oil and gas industry is looking for skilled workers in all fields. The midstream sector doesn’t involve much risk and is a highly regulated segment of the oil and gas industry. Many companies are benefited from the midstream sector because of the different ways oil and gas is processed, transported and stored. Before moving to the downstream process technological companies benefit by trying to find efficient ways to transport and store the oil and gas.
The downstream companies on the other hand are not capital intensive. It deals with huge amount of money in transactions. This sector provides the easiest  connection to the everyday consumers. Some of the products of the downstream sector are Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Gasoline,Diesel Oil, Jet Fuel, Heating Oil, Synthetic Rubber, Plastics Lubricants, Fertilizers,   Pesticides etc. This sector plays  a major role in several  other industries because the products  refined and produced are used in many ways. The downstream sector produces plastics  which is used by many of the industries in packing or manufacturing. Natural  gas  of the downstream  plays a major role in the production of fertilizers and pesticides. The farm equipment's also run on the fuel produced in the downstream. Conventional transportation methods such as trucks, boats etc are required for the transportation of processed  natural gas and oil products. The downstream also influences the medical  industry  through the production of pharmaceuticals and medical equipment's. The downstream industry also creates a lot of job opportunities and thus plays a major role in the economy of the country.
Oil and Gas Courses in Kerala

Sunday, 8 July 2018

CRUDE OIL


Crude oil is in news right now with OPEC meeting this week. Crude Oil is under pressure on back of statement from Saudi Arabia which says there is unlikely to be consensus for production cuts. Adding to that is news that US Federal Reserve is looking to restrict bank involvement in physical commodities. Saudi Arabia is willing to make concessions in terms of its oil production, if Iran is willing to participate too. Iran has politely declined of holding its production at 3.6 million barrel per day (bpd). OPEC crude producers are preparing to increase production to the world at large. They are Libya and Nigeria. Both countries combined are expected to supply additional 8,00,000 barrels a day which will add more woes to already oversupplied crude oil market. Reduction in demand both in China and India has also contributed crude oil prices to weaken further in the face of near record output from OPEC producers. The International Energy Agency (IEA) has said, “Supply will continue to outpace demand into 2017.”Oil and Gas Courses in Kerala.

Recently crude oil is showing greater sensitivity . Since last month crude oil gained more than 9 per cent when inventory was declining but now with increasing production from Libya and Nigeria plus expectation of no positive deal this OPEC meeting has made crude oil vulnerable and correcting more than 5 per cent in 2 trading session. This year the US summer seasonal weekly inventory change is now running between the 3- and 5-year averages. However inventories haven’t done anything too out of the ordinary this summer even as US production has decreased. US shale production is expected to remain steady as long as crude is between $40 and $60

The production rate of US rigs has reduced since last year from March 2015 till March 2016 because of weak crude oil prices. However because of technological advancement, the scenario is that rig counts have decreased by 50 per cent in a year yet the production has only decreased by 12 per cent. The productivity has doubled in a year and any increase in productivity will be a huge threat to crude oil prices in future. Saudi Arabia now no longer controls the oil market, with US increasing its productivity. The number of active US oil drilling rigs has increased this week. Despite the negative fundamentals, technically crude oil still looks neutral to bullish. Large correction is expected if crude oil breaks below Rs 2850 per barrel. Crude oil is expected to trade in range and any breakout will come above Rs 3,200 or breakdown below Rs 2,850, till then it will be range-bound. Short term support for crude comes at Rs 2945 per barrel which is the trendline drawn from the swing low. It will be frustrating time for traders in crude oil as clear trend will not materialise until crude oil breaks out from the trading range.

Crude oil saw a reduction in prices in Asia thus commodity hitting 11-month highs earlier in the week. The losses were in line with a the sell-off on equities markets from Asia to the Americas led to losses which created a fear about the state of the global economy. The increase in US unemployment numbers, have made oil more expensive and dampening the demand. The new signs of tightening supplies can boost oil futures .If the positive developments we are seeing like the tightening supply (and) increasing demand in the oil sector continue to develop for the next couple of months, then maybe the strengthening US dollar might not have that great impact.

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Wednesday, 4 July 2018

OIL INDUSTRY

It has been a tumultuous five years for the oil industry.  Back in 2013 the sector was basking in earnings they had not seen since the financial crisis and as prices reached a high of $115 a barrel in the middle of 2014, Big Oil (the world’s largest six or seven publicly traded oil and gas companies) readied itself for another year of bumper profits. But as the cyclical nature of the industry dictates, the good times had to come to an end. By early 2015, only six months after reaching new highs, oil prices had plummeted below the $50 mark and by early 2016 prices had reached the trough at just $30.
Big Oil responded as it always does: by cutting costs and spending. When times get tough the oil industry becomes amazed at how wasteful it has been when oil prices were high, and always manages to find billions in savings when forced to, albeit with a lot of help from the oilfield services industry that has to ride in their wake.  With a sector now fit for business and back in profit, oil prices have continued to climb, reaching $78 in May 2018 (its highest level in over three years) with current prices only lingering just below that.
The current support behind oil prices is largely being driven by concerns over tightening supply in the global oil market. Political instability in both Venezuela and Libya, combined with imminent US sanctions on Iran, threatens as much as two million barrels of daily supplies – equal to over 2% of global daily production. Venezuela’s oil output has already dropped off a cliff, falling by around 700,000 barrels per day over the last year or so, and there are concerns over Libya’s contribution of one million barrels per day due to militia in the country threatening to hand over key oil ports to rivals of the state-owned oil company.
For Iran, the third largest producing country in the Organisation of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), contributing about 3.8 million barrels per day, the situation is even more dire. Since the US pulled out of the Iran nuclear deal and warned it would impose new sanctions on the country, it has now been reported that the US is pressuring its allies to stop all imports of crude from Iran by November, which would be a much tougher stance than many first expected. With such a large amount of OPEC’s 32.4 million barrels of daily output under threat, the organisation’s leader, Saudi Arabia, and non-OPEC member but now close partner Russia have agreed to take action to plug the gap. Following the most recent meeting, the pair announced the organisation had agreed to raise daily output by one million barrels per day. Importantly, both Saudi Arabia and Russia are looking to add the majority of that bump-up in production, helping them to steal market share from other countries. However, Iran has claimed that no other member outside of Saudi Arabia or Russia had been given the go-ahead to turn on the taps, and has said that this will see a much smaller rise in OPEC production, of around 500,000 barrels daily. While Saudi Arabia is by far OPEC’s largest producer and willing to leverage its own excess capacity to get its point across to the market, there are concerns that it does not have as much as capacity as is needed.
Although OPEC only accounts for about one-third of global production, it is the closest thing there is to a central bank for the oil industry, tasked with balancing supply and demand and steering prices. This was especially true ten years ago, when the US was solely reliant on importing oil and producing just three million barrels per day. But the take-off of US shale has revolutionised the country’s energy production industry and pushed the US’s daily output to over eight million barrels per day in January 2018.In fact, the US will produce more energy than it needs within the next decade.This will make the US an energy exporter and rebalancing the relationship between the country and OPEC after decades of being heavily reliant on energy imports, albeit mostly from Canada but also from member nations. So, if the US has a growing oil industry and is slowly becoming less reliant on imports, why does it still rely on OPEC to manage the market and why does it want lower prices?
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Monday, 25 June 2018

WELDING ENGINEERING

Welding engineering covers  topics such as joint design, weld preparations and welding positions.Welding procedures are documents used by the welding engineer to guide the welder in the choice of consumable and welding conditions.They also carry other valuable information such as when preheating is required.
Many standards and classifications are used by the welding industry, but are they easy to understand? For example, MMA electrode manufactures and suppliers quote electrodes as being types E7018 but what does this mean? In fact, the numbers give an indication of the strength of the weld metal which will be deposited by the electrode and the type of coating the electrode has.When a weld is produced both the welding conditions used and the composition of the shielding gas can have a significant affect on the metallurgy.When welding stainless steels, carbon can be added to the weld metal through the decomposition of carbon dioxide used in the shielding gas.If too much carbon is added then this can affect the corrosion properties of the stainless steel.While calculating the welding cost following factors are considered :power consumed,consumable used,labor cost and gas cost.

Heat treatment

Heat treatment is often associated with increasing the strength of a material. There is a range of different heat treatments employed on materials before, during and after welding takes place.  Preheating is a method used to prevent hydrogen cracking taking place.  Heat treating a material can also be a method of reducing or removing stress which may have built up in a component either through forming or welding. It can be used to improve formability, restore ductility and to recover the grain size.It is usually done for  hardening,softening and property modification.Hardening heat treatment is suitable for steels.It is done for improving the  mechanical properties of steel.Sufficient carbon or alloy content is required for hardening.
Hardfacing involves one of two techniques: build-up or overlay. Based on the equipment needs, some may want to use a combination of both. The combination of the two techniques can be completed repeatedly provided that the part or equipment still remains sound.
The build-up technique  returns older equipment back to its original dimensions after it has been worn . The overlay technique adds a layer of protective filler metal deposits to protect against metal loss.
Hardfacing the teeth of digger buckets is carried out to improve the wear resistance of these components.Cladding of the internal surfaces of a vessel with stainless steel panels can mean that the structural parts of the vessel can be made out of a material which is cheaper, but the overall corrosion resistance and working life is not compromised.
Weld testing can be divided into two main areas; destructive and non-destructive testing methods.
In destructive testing, the sample of material or weld is snapped, broken and pulled apart by numerous techniques to gather data regarding the strength, toughness and hardness of the component.With non-destructive testing, as the name suggests, no physical damage occurs to the component.Techniques such as visual inspection, x-ray and ultrasonic testing are some of the most commonly used methods.
Welding and cutting defects:Welding and cutting defects do occur, even when care is taken to try and avoid them.  Understanding the main cause of these defects  is of fundamental importance in ensuring that the defects do not arise

Monday, 18 June 2018

OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY


The oil and gas industry is very vast and there are different career options available.  Oil and gas industry consists of hundreds of contractors and sub-contractors, with different types of work split .Even the pipe installation to cleaning is contracted separately – and every area demands entry-level workers who can learn fast. To start an occupation in the mining, oil, and gas industry some requirements are general for most workers; others are specific to occupations .As the jobs don’t require special education, there is hardly a shortage of available labour.  The job vacancies are usually been handled by third-party recruiting firm. The oil and gas companies outsource hiring decisions to trusted partners. One month of work experience in the industry or an internship helps opens doors for a wide variety of opportunities. Large companies have constant job openings which needs filling. Apprenticeships have also become more common. Attending internships in the college is also important for engineering students who hope to start a career in mining, oil, and gas. There are several coaching centres providing training for the same.



The oil and gas extraction depend on drillers to reach resources deep in the earth.  The latest drilling techniques often involve drilling down vertically and then drilling horizontally or in other directions .Drillers have to operate a variety of drills. They need to select the proper drill and drill bits to use and attach additional drill bits, rods, and pipes as the drill reaches deep in the earth. The workers have to keep a track of the drill’s pressure and speed. They monitor critical information, such as the pressure in a well or how much debris is being pumped out. And they keep records of the place where they have drilled, how deep they have gone, and the nature of the layers they have penetrated. The mining workers operate continuous miners, self-propelled machines that extract coal, rock, sand, stone, and other resources from mines. Others operate longwall shears, cutting machines, and other machinery that cuts or channels along mining surfaces. The machine operators determine where and what depth of a hole or channel should be dug. They position the machine and move controls to operate it. They also check their equipment for malfunctions. There are different types of equipment operators in the mining, oil, and gas industry. Most of the equipment used by the workers is similar to that found in the construction industry. Many people start their career in the mining, oil, and gas industry as labourers, or extraction workers. Workers in these occupations have to do different tasks. The jobs are often physically challenging. The extraction helpers assist their senior workers at a mine or oil & gas site. The types of tasks they do depend a lot on the types of extraction.

To succeed in the industry, workers also need determination and technological expertise. The workers who operate or move heavy equipment or machinery need physical strength. People who love adventures and like travelling to different places will like the job. Companies prefer to hire people who work well on teams and have good decision-making and problem-solving skills.

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Friday, 9 March 2018

PREVENTING RUST ON STAINLESS STEEL PIPES

Focusing on storage and shipping methods, plus adhering to a governing specification, are important for not only operating efficiently but to avoid costly rework. Rust on a stainless steel pipe surface presents a serious concern for oil and gas companies operating piping in fractures in the oil field marine environment, including adjacent coastal areas. When rust appears on the inside or outside surface of a stainless steel pipe, corrosion inspection teams notice, and questions arise as to why it occurred. To obtain high-integrity weldments meeting demanding oilfield service conditions, the Engineering Authority responsible for designing, fabricating, and installing weldments in oilfield applications outsources due diligence for selecting, developing, and supporting subcontracting fabricators.

Fabrication Synopsis

The critically of ensuring manufacturing readiness for a subcontracted fabricator is best handled through analyzing consequences experienced by an Engineering Authority for failing to perform outsourcing due diligence.
Type 316L austenitic stainless steel pipe spools-pipe sizes 2-to 20-in.outside diameter (OD), schedules 10 and 40- were subcontracted for fabrication in accordance with ASME B31.3, process piping.
All pipe welds were visually and radiographically inspected. Upon fabrication completion, all pipe spools were hydrostatically tested then transported to a remote, seaside construction site and stored outdoors, unprotected, for two or four weeks. As the pipe spools lay in storage awaiting installation, widespread rust developed at weld joints and along pipe lengths.
Subsequently, all pipe spools were visually inspected, and many were deemed unacceptable for installation. Pipe spool installation was delayed and an $800,000 cost was endured by the engineering authority to expedite corrective measures, such as chemical treatment and fabrication rework, for obtaining rust-free pipe spools. This event also triggered a root cause investigation encompassing the respective fabricator- the company subcontracted by the engineering authority to fabricate the projects stainless steel pipe spools- along with the engineering authority.

Root Cause Investigation

Six Sigma was employed as a root cause analysis tool in determining why widespread rusting of the 316L stainless steel pipe spools had occurred. The investigation encompassed an on-site review of the fabricator's production facility, shop floor discussion, and stainless steel material/rust specimens. The following factors were identified to be the root causes involving both the fabricator and engineering authority.
               Rusting occurred for two reasons: an anodic reaction resulting from exposure of surface iron (Fe) contamination to a marine environment and iron contamination from an incorrect weld filler metal (a carbon-steel weld filler metal).
Iron Contamination Mechanism

The dissemination of pertinent project documentation is an engineering authority responsibility for welded product outsourcing. However, there was no governing stainless steel material handling and control specification for the project.

Material Handling Issues
Stainless steel pipes were shipped by the pipe manufacturer to the fabricator, with carbon-steel banding straps placed in direct contact with pipe material, so rust strips developed where carbon-steel banding straps had scraped and gouged the pipe. The specification would have stipulated the use of noncontaminating banding straps. Surface rust manifestation is not easily and always successfully removed by mechanical techniques such as grinding, whereas chemical treatment with cleaning, descaling, and passivation is a more thorough and less invasive process.
As a corrective measure to eradicate exogenous iron contamination from the interior and exterior surfaces, project pipe spools were subjected to chemical treatment in accordance with ASTM A 380, Standard practice for cleaning, designing, and passivation of stainless steel parts, equipment, and systems.

Fabrication Practices

In addition, there was no presiding stainless steel welding specification provided by the engineering authority for the fabricator to comply with. A welding specification addresses mandatory requirements, specific prohibitions, and recommended guidelines for fabrication activities to ensure that the intended design services and performance characteristics of the pipe spools are met.
In manufacturing stainless steel weldments, a requisite is to physically isolate stainless steel manufacturing from carbon-steel welding operations to avoid iron contamination. However, within the fabricator's job shop, stainless steel pipe spools for the project were fabricated near to carbon-steel fabrication activities.
Shop and pipe spool cleanliness during production was not adequately maintained such that carbon-steel welding, grinding, and cutting particulate that had accumulated inside the stainless steel pipe spools corroded after being subjected to water for hydrostatic testing.

Widespread rusting of these type 316L stainless steel pipe spool was a direct result of the engineering authority failing to perform outsourcing due diligence. Doing so would have ensured manufacturing readiness of the fabricator prior to and throughout pipe-spool productions. Also, if outsourcing due diligence had been performed, both the engineering authority and fabricator would have been prepared for production activities.



Saturday, 3 March 2018

REMOVING RESIDUAL MAGNETISM BEFORE ARC WELDING.

Image result for welding
Welding is used for pipes and tubes in the fabrication of boiler components like headers, panels, and coils.Arc welding processes, including gas tungsten arc welding, shielded metal arc welding, and submerged arc welding are used.The underlying principle of this entire arc welding process is an electric arc is struck between an electrode and base metal, whereas the heat input of electric arc is used for melting and joining metals.
The raw material of the pipes and tubes used for fabrication of boiler components, as mentioned previously at the manufacturing stage, are finally
inspected for quality by nondestructive magnetic particle examination and also handled by magnetic cranes during transportation.Even after demagnetization, some amount of residual magnetism will be present on pipes and tubes and supplied as such.During fabrication, welding of these residual magnetic pipes/tubes is a challenge.

Problems during welding of pipes and tubes.

During welding of pipes and tubes, an electric arc is produced between the electrode and base metal to melt the metals at the welding point.This electric arc consists of a stream of electrons.If a significant level of magnetism is present in the pipes or tubes being welded, then interaction takes place between the magnetic field and the electric arc, which causes the welding arc to be deflected.This is known as arc blow.Due to this wandering of the arc, the welder may not be able to manipulate the arc resulting in welding defects like porosity, incomplete fusion, and more.

Depending upon the level of residual magnetism in steel, welding process such as GTAW, SMAW, and SAW are more sensitive to arc blow.Arc instability occurs in SMAW when the level of residual magnetism in steel is more than 20 Gauges, and arc instability occurs in SAW when the level of residual magnetism in steel is more than 40 gauss.

Magnetic arc blow is more likely to occur with lower voltage arcs.Hence the GTAW process,which has a low arc voltage of 10-15v, is more sensitive and susceptible to arc blow.But GTAW is a common process for root pass welding of pipes and tubes because it provides complete joint penetration welding on one side.Therefore, it is mandatory to demagnetize the residual magnetism developed in pipes and tubes to less
than 10 Gauss before using the GTAW process.

Principle and Method of Diamagnetism

Generally, two types of demagnetization are available: electrical demagnetization and thermal demagnetization.The electrical demagnetization method subjects the magnetized test object to the influence of a continuously reversing magnetic field that gradually reduces in strength, causing a corresponding reversal and reduction of the field in the test object.There are many types;
  • AC Coil
  • AC through current step down
  • AC through current reactor decay
  • DC through current reversing step down
  • DC coil reversing step down
  • AC yoke
  • Reversing DC yoke
The thermal demagnetization method heats the material above Curie temperature, causing magnetic material to lose its magnetic properties.It consists of
  • Annealing above Curie temperature
  • Preheating before welding.
Disadvantages of the Diamagnetism Methods

Both electrical and thermal demagnetization methods have certain disadvantages that restrict their usage for industrial applications, such as in boiler industries.The major disadvantages of using electrical demagnetization are that it is only efficient for smaller size components, and boiler components are larger size pipes and tubes.Therefore, the only suitable method is thermal demagnetization, although the annealing heat treatment demagnetization, although the annealing heat treatment operation consumes more time in heating and cooling cycles, and also power and fuel consumption for this process is more costly.Combining this demagnetization of pipes and tubes with other annealing operations may be more economical.

Principles and methods of bridge piece technique

A bridge piece is a small metal strip used to secure or fit up two butt joint members in alignment for welding. This bridge piece is tack welded on either side of the parts to be welded, securing them alignment by keeping proper root opening and ID matching for making sound weld metal.
When two tubes or pipes having residual magnetism are edge prepared and brought together for welding, the magnetic flux concentrates mostly on the edges due to the nature of the magnetic field. On welding the bridge piece to the tube or pipe by SMAW, the heat produced will cause the tube or pipe edges to be raised to a temperature close to the Curie temperature and reduce the magnetic flux at the edges, enabling the use of GTAW.
  • Select a bridge piece with a minimum leg length of 50 mm so as to have length welded by SMAW, causing more heat input.
  • Select 3 to 4 bridge pieces, depending on the diameter of the pipes or tubes, to cover the circumferential length.
  • Tack weld the bridge pieces on the pipes or tubes, as per the required alignment.
  • Start welding the bridge pieces by SMAW process, probably 3.2 or 4 mm electrode with a slightly higher current of 150-160A.
  • Make 1 or 2 weld passes to increase the heat input.
  • Concentrate 2-3rd current on the bridge piece and 1-3rd current on the pipe to avoid damage to the pipe or tube.
  • Carry the above method in all bridge pieces without time delay. Due to summation effect of welding heat input, the magnetic flux will be reduced at the edge of the piped or tubes, allowing for easy welding without arc blow.
  • While welding the bridge piece onto a pipe or tube, the bridge piece is to be welded only on one side for easy removal after demagnetization.
  • Immediately after welding the bridge piece, being root welding using GTAW.
  • After completion, grind and remove these bridge pieces.

Conclusion
Although various methods are available for demagnetization, they are more restricted due to their applications and time-consuming process. The bridge piece techniques is a fast and practical demagnetization technique applied for welding of tubes and pipes having residual magnetism. This method uses the basic thermal demagnetization principle and is applied in a practical manner.

Sunday, 25 February 2018

IMPROVING WELDER SAFETY

Opening a dialogue among management, welders, and protective-equipment suppliers is a wise idea for keeping pace with ever-changing workers environments. There is a significant need for welding professionals to expand their safety dialogues, particularly with regard to personal protective equipment (PPE). In order for this to occur, it is essential that the nature of these conversations and engagements be improved. Two approaches must take place for success. First, the mindset of the welders needs to be grounded in both individual and shared accountability. There should be the individual commitment of, “I will work safely,” plus a team commitment of, “we will work safely.” an individual must feel responsible to their teams and be empowered to take active roles in promoting safety. In this way, welders can internalize safety-oriented mindsets and ensure safer work practices are followed by all workers every day.
Second, welders should be active participants in the safety-mitigation process and conversations. This engagement needs to emphasize their understanding of the factors that influence their decisions that could lead to injuries, as well as thoughtful dialogue about how to make critical safety decisions. The openness and accountability that results ensure stronger dialogue as welders identify and address safety gaps in PPE. Through the expansion of safety dialogues, the welders will be better equipped to develop innovative risk mitigation solutions, being more adaptive as workplace environments change, and, most importantly, show an improved ability, to proactively avoid situations that could result in an injury.
The openness and accountability that results ensure stronger dialogue as welders identify and address safety gaps in PPE. Through the expansion of safety dialogues, the welders will be better equipped to develop innovative risk mitigation solutions, being more adaptive as workplace environments change, and, most importantly, show an improved ability to proactively avoid situations that could result in an injury.

KEEPING PPE SUPPLIERS IN THE LOOP
In order to talk to the workers and managers about improvements and advantages & disadvantages to safety and PPE gaps, welders should also discuss with their issues and problems with safety product manufacturers to help them identify ways to eliminate injuries or fatalities due to gaps in current safety methods and PPE. This collaborative dialogue not only benefits welders by having their voices and concerns heard but also helps PPE suppliers provide better equipment based on welders need and experiences.

OBSERVING WORK PRACTICES
To make an upgrade to the present PPE available, it's important that welders have a strong understanding of the factors influencing their work practices and performance. The attention of work practices helps determine that professionals are wearing welding helmets and types of PPE properly, and the ways in which welders are interacting with PPE on a daily basis being used correctly. When observing the workers using welding helmets with auto-darkening filter technology, the focus should be on whether workers are lifting their helmets up and down or removing their helmets totally. Safety managers should begin dialogues with these workers to learn their reasons for not using the PPE appropriately and find ways to encourage them to use PPE correctly. Proper fit, critical to workers acceptance, is one of the biggest factors affecting PPE usage. Workers are most likely to comply with PPE protocols when the equipment is more comfortable to wear.

DISCUSSING COMPLIANCE
Observing work practices can lead to improvements in workplace safety enforcement, policies, and standards, and draw workers attention to the hazards present in the workplace. The findings have helped not only welding professionals but also benefited safety product manufacturers. Instructions help employers, workers, and safety managers evaluate their use of PPE during operations involving isocyanates, utilize effective wipe sampling evaluation methods, and implement proper housekeeping measures, including cleaning frequency and methods assessment. In response to the new instructions, safety managers and welders serving the automotive, aviation, and metal-manufacturing are discussing the various ways to address and mitigate the impact of isocyanates in the workplace in collaboration with safety product manufacturers.

FOUR QUESTIONS TO ASK
As part of this movement toward more innovative safety solutions, welding professionals should ensure they are asking the right questions in order to understand their particular safety needs. Here are four questions that should be asked.

What welding applications am I doing?                                                 
 A welder could be doing multiple types of welding, or more specific type of welding, such as arc welding, resistance welding, solid-state welding, etc. The various welding applications require different PPE to ensure the welder is fully protected from injuries. Welders should have the opportunities to openly discuss the various welding applications to determine the PPE that is most appropriate for their particular work tasks. These discussions will likely help determine the area of improvement to current PPE.

What are the lighting conditions in my work area?                         
The lighting conditions during a work task or in a specific work area (e.g. Ambient light, indoor vs outdoor lighting etc.) will have a significant impact on PPE selection. For example, lighting conditions are particularly important to determine the appropriate protective eyewear. Proper illumination when welding is also essential for the optimization of safety, comfort, and productivity. This is another occasion where welders can discuss ways to improve visibility without compromising vision protection and safety.

What else am I exposed to beyond physical environmental exposures?
 By asking this question, a welder can ensure he or she is taking all necessary precautions to identify and mitigate potentially harmful workplace exposures. For example, welders can experience occupational exposure to manganese in certain welding fumes. Exposure manganese may be harmful, especially while working in confined spaces such as storage tanks, pipeline, or airplane compartments. To minimize exposure, air-purification and welding-fume extraction systems can be implemented. By discussing  these possible solutions, there can be more effective strategies developed to reduce the impact or chance of exposure.

What additional ways can I protect myself and those around me by using proper PPE?                 This is an important question to ask before beginning any welding application, as well as when observing others working. By taking time to assess the PPE needed to be worn and the associated safe work practices, a welder is empowered and held accountable to identify any potential safety gaps in the workplace and adjust his or her PPE accordingly. This shift in thinking ensures safer actions are being taken. The promotion of this mindset also catalyzes the conversation between safety managers and workers and guides safety product manufacturers to develop improved PPE.

Saturday, 17 February 2018

WELDING IN HEAVY INDUSTRIES


Rapid technological developments & economies of scale in process plant industries has led to severe operating temperature and pressure conditions for reactors, pressure vessels, and heat exchangers. In the same way, all upcoming plants and equipment for nuclear, defense and aerospace industries are also getting bigger and more complex. To cope up with this trend, new generation materials are being developed worldwide, design aspects are becoming increasingly complex with very stringent quality and safety requirements. In addition, the delivery time is being squeezed to minimize the project cost. All these developments continuously pose new challenges to the welding technologists connected with heavy engineering industries worldwide.
Till the advent of the new century, Indian heavy engineering industries were mainly engaged in catering to the needs of domestic customers for equipment and accessories. In fact, many of the Indian customers were insisting Indian heavy engineering companies have a tie-up with international companies as a pre-request for qualification as a bidder. Similarly, international customers were not comfortable with Indian suppliers as far as supply of critical equipment was concerned. Some of the Indian heavy engineering industries took this up as a challenge to demonstrate that they were as good if not better then foreign fabricators.

Developments In Materials And Weldability

There is continuous development of materials for all the industries to improve process efficiency, reduce the weight of equipment, improve plant life and reduce plant maintenance/ shut down. Designers are coming up with a newer variety of materials thereby posing challenges in front of manufacturing industry to come up with suitable technology for processing the same.

Creep Resistant Cr-Mo Materials- Conventionally, creep resistant 2.25 Cr-1Mo material is very widely used in Refinery & Fertilizer applications up to 4500 C. Increase in temperature and pressure conditions and also susceptibility to hydrogen attack in such environment called for improved materials. Thus in the late 90's steelmakers came out with never variety of 2.25 Cr-1Mo material, known as vanadium modified 2.25 Cr-1Mo material. Use of these high strength materials helps in substantial reduction in vessel weight due to thickness reduction. Typically, changing the material from conventional 2.25 Cr-1Mo steel to 2.25 Cr-1Mo-0.25V steel will result in nearly 30% reduction in weight in a typical 1000MT reactor. This is a huge saving and as a result, all designers are changing over this new generation material to take advantage of this benefit.

Development In Welding Technology & Automation

Welding is one of the important operations in fabrications. Recent developments in design and operation have put a lot of challenges in front of welding engineers which has led to many innovations such as the introduction of new processes/ variants of processes, new techniques, mechanization and several others.

Quality and on-time delivery of equipment are the two most important requirements in today's globalized world. Therefore, fabricators are working towards more and more mechanization of welding operations. Some examples of mechanization of welding carried out by Indian Heavy engineering industries are:

Narrow Gap Saw: Most of the reactors and vessels manufactured nowadays are heavy wall thickness (>100mm). While welding of high thickness welds in such equipment, adoption of Narrow Gap SAW technique provides great advantages in terms of reduction in welding consumables and cycle time. In NG SAW, the sidewalls are nearly vertical (with 0.50 angle) and the top opening of the groove is as low as only 28~30mm irrespective of thickness. It is very important to get the welding operation 'first time right' since it is extremely difficult to carry out post weld repairs. Use of contractor non-contact type seam tracking devices and turning rollers with drift control is mandatory for successful welding of such joint. This technique has been successfully applied in welding high thickness Carbon, Cr-Mo and Stainless Steels. Narrow Gap Tandem SAWis one of the process variations of SAW, wherein two (or more) wires are fed from separate welding heads and power sources into the same weld puddle. Use of two wire Tandem SAW increases the productivity by about 90% and is regularly used by fabricators. Capability to weld up to 800 mm thick joints have been demonstrated by Indian fabricators.

Weld Overlay by ESW/SAW: for equipment operating with fluid which is corrosive, normally, inside surface of C-Mn or low alloy steel is cladded/ weld overlaid with corrosion resistant material. A typical reactor requires nearly 25MT of weld overlay (assuming 4.5mm thick weld overlay) to cover the entire inside surface of shell courses and heads. The requires development of high deposition welding techniques like Electro Slag Welding (ESW) or Submerged Arc Welding(SAW) using strip electrode. Welding is carried out by using strips of up to 120mm wide and 0.5mm thick, which results in deposition of 42 Kg/arc-hr. ESW overlay of stainless steel and nickel alloys are regularly carried out by Indian fabricators.
Weld Overlay of Nozzle Pipe/ Fittings by Mechanized Processes: all nozzle attachments in a clad/ overlayed reactor call for weld overlay on the inside surface as well as on the faces. Special welding torches to carry out weld overlay by mechanized FCAW, GTAW or Thin-wire SAW (1.2mm/1.6mm dia) inside nozzle pipes, forgings, and 900 elbows. Weld overlay has been carried out successfully on nozzles with a very small bore (as low as 25mm) and extra length (as high as 400mm) wear resistant overlay operations have also been carried out on OD of bars by Plasma Transferred Arc Welding(PTAW) Process.

Development In Quality Control & Assurance of Welded Constructions

Each weld joint of a vessel calls for stringent inspection and testing requirements as per the requirement of manufacturing code, customer specifications, and other applicable standards. The test generally includes Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) like Radiography (RT) Ultrasonic Test (UT), Magnetic Particle Test (MPT), & Penetrant Test (PT) in addition to the thorough visual examination. Out of these tests, RT & UT are given maximum importance. Due to the higher wall thickness of the vessels, RT is being preferably done using a high power Linear Accelerator (LINAC). On the other hand, Micro focal anode X-ray is being used for detection of a flaw in Tube to Tubesheet joints for critical nuclear applications.The concept in NDT has shifted from 'only flaw detection' to 'flaw detection, characterization and flaw sizing'. There is a huge advancement in UT technology over the last few years. His resolution UT including Time of Flight Diffraction (TOFD) has become a mandatory requirement for all critical reactor weld joints. Stringent requirements of nuclear and aerospace projects have taken capabilities in carrying out various NDT to its zenith.

Significant changes have taken place over the years in welding and allied areas in heavy industries in India. From making simple equipment with basics materials to fabricating the most complex ones involving stringent quality requirement, the Indian heavy engineering industry has envolved a lot. The industry has become mature and can compete globally for various orders, due to its demonstration capabilities in welding and allied fields.