Friday, 14 December 2018

What is the impact of Oil prices on the Indian economy?


The recent rise in the costs of crude oil has drawn everyone’s attention towards the crucial role that oil plays within the economy of any nation. Crude oil is one in all the foremost necessitated commodities within the world and India imports around a hundred million heaps of petroleum and alternative rock oil product. This successively, ends up in spending a huge amount of foreign exchange. The increasing quantum of imports of rock oil product has an important impact on the Indian economy, particularly once petroleum costs area unit taking drugs globally. Crude oil not only supplies energy however additionally it acts as a serious stuff to varied industries. With no major discoveries within the recent years, the increasing prices of production have pushed up petroleum costs globally. Also, the high volatility within the costs of oil breaching the $100/barrel mark and rising to a high of $147/barrel can be attributed to the very fact that within the recent years, several index funds have taken positions in commodities considering oil to be associate plus stock in their portfolios. In India, the rating theme is intended in such some way that it offers a system to moderate the soaring international oil costs and thereby study the impact on growth, inflation, etc. 

This spike in oil value considerably will increase the energy prices of each country and becomes a serious concern within the fragile world economy. The impact of rising oil costs on the economy differs from country to country relying upon individual energy provide and demand structures. Countries that might be adversely littered with the rise in oil value are typically characterized by high internet imports of oil per value. Historically, the non-oil manufacturing developing countries fall into this class. Against this background, developed countries are a lot of economical in their usage of oil and gas thus, see associate easing of this adverse result of rise in oil costs. There is a negative impact of rise in petroleum costs. A steep fall within the current accounts ends up in any worsening of the treasury budgets, which, in turn, can any worsen the balance between savings and investments. Also, reducing tax revenues and alternative extraneous factors can worsen the treasury budgets. Because of the economic condition in Europe, wherever the treasury budgets have jolted, there's a monumental imbalance between savings and investments. These imbalances continue worsening owing to rising oil costs,that threaten to push the economy into a lot of deeper crisis. Once there a fixed nominal exchange rate associated and there's additionally an output gap, an increase in oil costs ends up in a rise within the general value levels. Thus all oil importing countries faced the threat of oil shock; India, being a serious oil businessperson, was significantly affected. In India, increase in rock oil costs usually ends up in debates among the general public. This indirectly ends up in delay in any quite adjustment in costs and within the long-standing time, creates an even bigger shock. It additionally impacts the costs of all those commodities that use these product as inputs.

Friday, 7 December 2018

What are the various welding processes?


The various types of welding processes are as follows:
Arc welding processes: Arc welding could be a technique of for good connection for a lot of metal components. It consists of combination of various attachment processes whereby conglutination is created by heating with an electrical arc, (mostly while not the applying of pressure) and with or while not the employment of filler metals relying upon the bottom plate thickness. A same joint is achieved by melting and fusing the adjacent parts of the separate components. The ultimate welded joint has strength that is adequate to that of the bottom material. The arc temperature is maintained around 4400°C. A flux material is employed to forestall oxidization, that decomposes beneath the warmth of attachment and releases a gas that shields the arc and also the hot metal.
Shielded-Metal Arc (SMAW) or Stick welding: this is often associated with arc attachment method whereby a combination is created by heating the work with an electrical arc setup between a flux-coated conductor and also the work. The conductor is a rod coated with flux.
Submerged Arc attachment (SAW): this is often another style of arc attachment method, during which a union is created by heating the work with an electrical arc setup between the blank conductor and also the work piece. Liquefied pool remains fully hidden beneath a blanket of granular material referred to as flux. The conductor is a wire and is endlessly fed from a reel. Movement of the weld gun, dispensing of the flux and finding out of surplus flux granules behind the gun are sometimes automatic.
Flux-Cored Arc attachment (FCAW) This method is analogous to the shielded-arc stick attachment method with the most distinction being the flux is within the attachment rod. Tubular, volute and endlessly fed conductor containing flux within the conductor is employed, thereby, saving the value of fixing the attachment. Sometimes, outwardly provided gas is employed to help in shielding the arc.
Gas-Metal Arc attachment (GMAW) during this method associate degree element like atomic number 18, helium, greenhouse emission or a combination of them are accustomed to atmospheric contamination of the weld. The shielding gas is then allowed to flow through the weld gun. The conductor used here is during a wire kind, fed endlessly at a set rate. The wire is consumed throughout the method and thereby provides filler metal.
Gas-Tungsten Arc attachment (GTAW): This method is additionally called tungsten–inert gas (TIG) attachment. This is often kind of like the Gas Metal Arc attachment method, distinction being the conductor is non expendable and doesn't offer filler metal during this case. A gas protect (usually inert gas) is employed as within the GMAW method. If the filler metal is needed, associate degree auxiliary rod is employed.
Plasma Arc attachment (PAW) This method is analogous to TIG. A non-consumable conductor is employed during this method. Arc plasma could be a state of gas. The gas gets ionized once the passage of electrical current and becomes a conductor of electricity. The plasma consists of a combination of free electrons, positive ions, and neutral particles. Plasma arc attachment differs from GTAW attachment within the quantity of ionized gas that is greatly augmented in plasma arc attachment, and it's this ionized gas that gives the warmth of attachment.
Oxyfuel Gas attachment (OFW): This method is additionally called ox-acetylene attachment. Heat is provided by the combustion of alkyne during a stream of atomic number 8, each gases are provided to the torch through versatile hoses. Heat from this torch is lower and much less focused than that from an electrical arc.
Resistance welding: Resistance welding could be a cluster of attachment method within which a is created by the warmth obtained from the resistance of the work to the flow of electrical current during a circuit of which the work could be a half and by the applying of pressure. No filler metal is required during this method.
Electron-Beam welding (EBW): beam welding is outlined as a fusion attachment method whereby conglutination is created by the warmth obtained from a focused beam of high rate lepton. Once high rate electrons strike the work piece, mechanical energy is remodeled into thermal energy inflicting localized heating and melting of the weld metal. The beam generation takes place during a vacuum, and also the method works best once the whole operation and also the work piece are during a high vacuum of 10-4torr or lower. However, radiations particularly ray, infrared and ultraviolet illumination generates and also the attachment operator should be protected.
Laser Beam welding (LBW): this is a fusion attachment method and a new form is achieved by utilizing the warmth obtained from a focused coherent beam of light and natural event upon the surface to be joined. This method uses the energy in a focused beam of coherent, mono-chromatic light-weight to soften the weld metal.
Friction welding (FRW): In friction attachment (solid state attachment process) a new form is created by utilizing the warmth obtained from the automatically iatrogenic rotating motion between the rubbing surfaces. Once the temperature at the interface of the 2 components is sufficiently high, the rotation is stopped and augmented axial force is applied. This fuses the 2 components along. The motility force is provided through a robust motor or a regulator.  welding inspector course in kerala

Saturday, 24 November 2018

Does the type of crude affect the price?


Crude oil and fossil fuel merchandise area unit international commodities and, as such, their costs area unit determined by offer and demand factors on a worldwide basis. They're shipped from several sources to several markets the worth of fossil fuel is that the most important issue determinative the costs of fossil fuel merchandise. Consequently, the value of hydrocarbon is basically determined by the worldwide demand for and provide of fossil fuel costs replicate the interactions of the many consumers and sellers, every with their own read of the demand for and provide of fossil fuel and fossil fuel merchandise. These interactions occur each within the physical and futures markets, with the attendant costs responding quickly to each current and expected future changes in offer and demand conditions. Crude oils have numerous attributes that build them a lot of or less engaging to refiners. A lot of viscous crudes that will need heating or thinner to flow area unit thought-about “heavy” normally, light-weight crudes need less process at a works to provide a lot of valuable mixture of finished merchandise like hydrocarbon, diesel, and jet fuel. While not a lot of intensive process (and associated investment in complicated processing capacity) heavier crudes tend to provide proportionately higher quantities of less valuable merchandise like residual heating oil and asphalt. Similarly, sure impurities in crudes makes it difficult to refine merchandise that meet current standards. 

Sulfur may be a common impurity in fossil fuel that has to be aloof from most transportation fuels to fulfill ever a lot of demanding air quality needs. Crudes with a coffee level of sulfur area unit selected “sweet,” whereas those with a high level area unit known as “sour.” Due to the requirement for way more complicated process, heavy, bitter fossil fuel generally sells at a cheaper price than light-weight, sweet crude. The political economy of a works rely upon the combination of crudes processed (crude slate), the complexness of the works process units, and therefore the desired output mixture of finished merchandise like hydrocarbon, diesel, jet fuel, home fuel, residual fuel, and asphalt (product slate). Whereas a work will handle some variance in its crude state, the mixture of processing units put in limits the degree to that the properties of the slates will amendment and still with efficiency be born-again into a specific mixture of finished merchandise. Adding light-weight, sweet crudes to the input slates for such refineries will increase their fossil fuel input prices, however doesn't essentially give a major enough improvement in valuable product yields to be profitable. The costs for domestic supplies—especially of sunshine sweet crude oil—have their own uncertainties. Whereas pipeline, rail, and barge infrastructure is being developed to permit these crudes to succeed in intense markets, there's vital uncertainty concerning the degree to that this may increase domestic costs for light-weight sweet fossil fuel. The refineries cannot absorb way more of the increasing domestic production of crudes oil and gas. The value of fossil fuel is that the most important issue determining the value of hydrocarbon as a result of it represents the most important element of the underlying value of manufacturing and promoting hydrocarbon. In 2013, fossil fuel accounted for sixty eight of the typical retail worth of hydrocarbon, whereas taxes (12%), processing (11%), and distribution and promoting (9%) account for the remainder.

Thursday, 15 November 2018

Petroleum


Petroleum may be a complicated, liquid mixture containing largely hydrocarbon and some compounds of element, gas and sulphur. It's usually named as the “black gold. Most of the world's fossil oil is found within the geographic region. Fossil oil is made by the breaking down of huge molecules of fats, oils and waxes that contributed to the formation of kerogen . This method began scores of years past, once tiny marine organisms abounded within the seas. As marine life died, it settled at the ocean bottom and have become buried in layers of clay, silt and sand. The gradual decay by the impact of warmth and pressure resulted within the formation of many compounds. As a result of fossil ,oil may be a fluid, it's ready to migrate through the world because of it form. To create giant, economically redeemable amounts of oil underground, two things are needed: An oil pool And an oil lure. An oil pool, that is the underground reservoir of oil, might virtually be a pool or it may be droplets of oil collected in a very extremely porous rock like arenaceous rock. An oil lure may be a non-porous rock formation that holds the oil pool . Obviously, so as to remain within the ground, the fluids – oil and gas courses in kochi – should be treed, so they can't flow to the surface of the world. The hydrocarbons accumulate in reservoir rock, the porous arenaceous rock or stone. The reservoir rock should have a covering of a proof rock that may not enable the passage of the organic compound
fluids to the surface. 

The proof rock covering the reservoir rocks is named a cap rock. The oil traps comprises organic compound fluids command in porous rock lined by a cap rock. A hot, wet climate fosters the expansion of huge amounts of organisms. If this growth takes place in a very shallow ocean, the ultimate drying out of the surroundings and evaporation of the ocean water leaves behind giant deposits of salt. Salt makes a wonderful cap rock for a reservoir. If these conditions are increased by a delicate earth science folding of the undersea rocks, the rock folding will manufacture terribly giant reservoirs, with the salt deposits acting as a cap. These are exactly the conditions that prevailed within the geographic region, giving rise to the big deposits of oil found in this region of the globe. The basic composition of fossil oil is way less variable than that of coal: 83-87% carbon, 11-16% atomic number 1, 0-4% element and gas, and 0-4% sulfur. The majority crude oils contain considerably a lot of atomic number 1 than coals. Solely a quick discussion is required here relating to the distribution of those components among the thousands of compounds found in fossil oil. Most of the compounds in fossil oil contain from 5 to twenty carbon atoms. Fossil oil utilization may be a way more complicated method than coal utilization, specially, the preparation of fossil oil before it's sold-out to the customers is extremely intensive. The rationale for this can be that, despite their similar elemental composition, the chemical structure of totally different crude oils is also terribly different. Moreover, an oversized variety of various product is obtained from the refinery.Fuel is the most significant product of a refinery. An honest quality previous deep petroleum might yield 2 hundredth straight-run fuel upon distillation. That is, each a hundred barrels of petroleum distilled would offer twenty barrels of fuel.Today's market demand for fuel is specified to provide a lot of like 40-50 barrels of fuel from a hundred barrels of crude . Fuel elements generally have 5 to 9 carbon atoms, whereas the higher-boiling distillation product have larger molecules. The gradual heating of fossil oil within the world converts giant molecules having long chains of carbon atoms to smaller molecules. To extend the quantity of fuel created throughout purification, we tend to adopt nature's method for reducing the dimensions of molecules by heating. The formation of cude in nature takes thousands of years. To accelerate this method and create it commercially helpful in an refinery, we tend to use a lot of higher temperatures than ar encountered in a very typical fossil oil reservoir.

What is the role of a Geo-Scientist in Oil and Gas Industry?



The majority of geo- scientists who are employed in search of oil and gas fall under any one of the 3 sub-specialties. Though there is a lot of overlap, these 3 sub-specialties are as follows: geologists (understanding the rocks), geophysicists (interpreting the submersed structure or configuration through seismal, gravity, etc.) and geo chemists (understanding the submersed fluids, like petroleum). Geo scientists are utilized by oil exploration and production corporations as a result of their experience in applying natural science to predict submersed conditions and processes at add matter basins that kind the “hydrocarbon habitat” for oil and gas deposits. In their role of assessing uncertainty, geo- scientists should have the power to figure in multidisciplinary groups that put together gather a spread of experience, together with geophysical science, Petro physics, drilling , production ,operations, environmental analysis, economics, accounting, legal, commercial, and negotiations. Mistakes within the exploration business is pricey in terms of cash, environmental impact, and human safety. Typically, each well that's trained undergoes an intensive study afterward, known as a “post-well appraisal”, to find out the maximum amount as potential concerning successes and failures. The challenge for geo scientists is to interpret the submersed and for exploration the foremost necessary issue is that the plan or idea of wherever hydrocarbons could be found within the submersed and why. The scientist should develop inventive and innovative ideas concerning wherever oil and gas could be found. Fossil fuel geo scientists hunt for new exploration areas by learning the regional earth science. This regional summary provides an understanding of that area or may be, productive, why they're productive, and what alternative areas ought to be examined. Geologists and geophysicists try and predict wherever oil and gas occur by “remote sensing”, mistreatment gravity and geophysics, rock distribution and properties, and geology imaging tools to collect information on submersed characteristics. 
The information that is generated are usually subjected to process, advanced modeling with three-dimensional (3-D) mental image so as to higher perceive and image the submersed. Drilling for oil and gas might present itself once all earth science, economic, political and environmental conditions area unit deemed to be favorable. Geologists additionally use ideas, just like the anti clinal theory (popularized within the 1880s) and therefore the total fossil fuel system (popularized within the 1980s), to develop earth science models that support business and engineering choices (Oil and Gas) earth science and resources. Geo chemists study the chemistry of fossil fuel and its sources to characterize the fossil fuel kind, history and origin. Geo chemists additionally develop input into basin modeling that provides quantitative integrated fossil fuel system models, together with supply, reservoir, seal, tack mechanism and hydro carbon charge. Further earth science specialty areas, structural earth science and stratigraphy, are widely utilized in the industry. Structural geology provides an understanding of submersed deformation processes which will produce organic compound traps. Stratigraphy refers to the analysis of the origin, composition, distribution, and succession of rock layers. Stratigraphers try and acknowledge and follow rock beds or layers from one well or outcrop to a different. The act of going from a well or rock formation whose beds and rock layers are familiar to a section that's unknown, however assumed to be similar is named “stratigraphic correlation”. The strategies and tools that a scientist might use embody conducting rock studies, constructing maps and cross-sections, creating chemical and physical measurements, developing abstract and numerical submersed models, developing databases and creating calculations. Geologists additionally give input into business and economic models, drilling operations, and coming up with facilities like oil and gas production platforms. oil and gas courses in kerala

Friday, 9 November 2018

Welding Applications


The principal applications of welding are (1) construction, like buildings and bridges; (2) piping, pressure vessels, boilers, and storage tanks; (3) shipbuilding; (4) craft and aerospace; and (5) automotive and railroad .Welding is performed in a very type of locations and in a very type of industries. Due to its assembly technique for industrial product, several welding operations are performed in factories. However, many of the standard processes, like arc welding and oxyfuel gas welding, use instrumentation which will be without delay captive, thus these operations don't seem to be restricted to the manufacturing plant. Welding will be performed at construction sites, in shipyards, at customers’ plants, and in automotive repair outlets. Most welding operations are labor intensive. Arc welding is typically performed by a talented employee, known as a artificer, United Nations agency manually controls the trail or placement of the weld to affix individual elements into a bigger unit. In manufacturing plant operations within which arc welding is manually performed, the artificer usually works with a second employee, known as a fitter. it's the fitter’s job to rearrange the individual elements for the artificer before creating the weld. A welding fixture could be a device for clamping and holding the elements in mounted position for attachment. it's custom made-up for the actual pure mathematics of the assembly and so should be economically even on the premise of the quantities of assemblies to be created. A welding positioned could be a device that holds the elements and additionally moves the assemblage to the required position for welding. This differs from a welding fixture that solely holds the elements in a very single mounted position. The required position is typically one within which the weld path is flat and horizontal.

The security Issue welding is inherently dangerous to human employees. Strict safety precautions should be practiced by people who perform these operations. The high temperatures of the liquid metals in welding are an understandable danger. In gas welding, the fuels (e.g., acetylene) are a fireplace hazard. Most of the processes use high energy to cause melting of the half surfaces to be joined. In several welding processes, wattage is that the supply of thermal energy, thus there's the hazard of inborn reflex to the employee. Bound welding processes have their own specific perils. If the instrumentation is capable of acting the operation while not management by somebody's operator, it's named as automatic attachment. Somebody's employee is typically gift to manage the method and find variations from traditional conditions. What distinguishes automatic welding from machine welding could be a weld cycle controller to manage the arc movement and work positioning while not continuous human attention. Automatic welding needs a welding fixture and/or rotary actuator to position the work relative to the attachment head. It additionally needs the next degree of consistency and accuracy within the element elements employed in the assembly. For these reasons, automatic welding will be even just for profusion production. In robotic welding, An industrial mechanism or programmable manipulator is employed to mechanically management the movement of the welding head relative to the work .The versatile reach of the mechanism arm permits the employment of comparatively easy fixtures, and therefore the robot’s capability to be reprogrammed for brand new half configurations permits this manner of automation to be even for comparatively low production quantities. A typical mechanism of arc welding cell consists of 2 welding fixtures and fitter to load and unload elements whereas in robot welds additionally to arc welding inspection course in kerala, industrial robots are employed in automobile final assembly plants to perform resistance attachment on automotive bodies .

Friday, 2 November 2018

Construction Safety


Construction safety in India continues to be in its early years as a result of safety laws that aren't strictly enforced. The contractors ignore several basic safety rules and laws from the beginning of any work. However, to enhance operating conditions, the govt. has enacted specific legislation's just like the Minimum Wages Act, the Workmen Compensation Act of 1923 (modified in 1962), and therefore the Contract Labour (Regulation and abolition) Act of 1970, of that solely a tiny low quantity scope and procedures are in place into observe. National codification of India, 2005 provides pointers for regulation construction activities for a building. Even then, employee’s safety within the Indian housing industry is usually pushed to all-time low within the priority list of most of the builders, contractors, and engineers whereas many are unaware of any such norms and regulation. In developing countries like India safety rules sometimes don't exist, although it exists; regulative authorities square measure unable to implement such rules effectively. Therefore, it's up to the development skilled to drill and concrete these safety norms in their operating and ultimately fitting a desired commonplace. This will undoubtedly scale back accidents that directly or indirectly scale back project price and ultimately the delays. In India efforts ought to be created to lift the amount of awareness among the employees and therefore the employers concerning the importance of health and protective problems. Accidents within the housing industry are measured in terms of human and money. The economic price isn't the sole basis on that a contractor ought to take into account construction safety course in kerala. The explanations for considering safety square measure humanitarian issues, economic reasons, laws and laws, and structure image. 

Price of safety is paid by the organization either through the uncontrolled price of accidents or through the controlled price of safety program. The uncontrolled price of accidents includes the loss of productivity, body time for investigations, disruption of schedules, wages paid to the black-and-blue employees, adverse content, liability claims, and instrumentation harm. The controlled price of safety program consists of salaries of safety, medical, and clinical personnel, expenses for safety conferences, inspections of tools and instrumentation, orientation sessions, website inspections, personal protecting instrumentation, and health programs. The identification of root causes of accidents may be an advanced method. Accident mitigation needs a comprehensive understanding of construction method. Within the economic business plays a significant role because it usually contributes ten per cent of a developing country’s gross national product. It is additionally terribly dangerous with virtually six fold as several fatalities and double as several injuries per hour worked relative to a producing business . Efforts are taken by government by fitting, National Safety Council (NSC) that generates, develops and sustains a voluntary movement on Safety, Health and surroundings (SHE) at the national level. It carries out numerous activities like specialized coaching courses, conferences, seminars & workshops; conducting practice services like safety audits, hazard analysis & risk assessment; coming up with and developing HSE promotional materials & publications; facilitating organizations in celebrating numerous campaigns e.g. Safety Day, fireplace Service Week, World surroundings Day . 4th March, in India, is well known as National Safety Day/Week each year, throughout that numerous campaigns square measure organized in promotion of Safety, Health and surroundings (SHE) movement to completely different elements of the country. Construction organizations fascinated by increasing safety and aggressiveness should look to Total Quality Management (TQM) initiatives for inspiration. Quality focus, total commitment, and continual improvement should be the mantra of selection. Solely those corporations that strive against associate aggressive safety management approach can sustain profit margins and win foremost aggressiveness.

Friday, 26 October 2018

Well Casing


Well Casing
Installing the well casing is a vital a part of the drilling and completion method. Well casing consists of a series of metal tubes put in within the freshly trained hole. Casing serves to strengthen the perimeters of the well hole, make sure that no oil or fossil fuel seeps out because it is dropped at the surface, and keep different fluids or gases from oozy into the formation through the well. The designing is important to confirm that the correct casing for every well is put in. Types of casing used rely on underground characteristics of the well, as well as the diameter of the well that again depends on the dimensions of the drilling bit used and also the pressures and temperatures fully fledged. In most wells, the diameter of the well hole decreases the deeper it's trained, resulting in a cone like shape that has to be taken under consideration once putting in casing.

There are 5 differing types of well casing. Conductor casing is a method in which casing is done before the actual drilling to prevent from caving in and to assist in bringing the lubricator up from the lowest of the well. • Surface casing is that the next sort of casing to be put in. It is anyplace from a hundred to four hundred meters long, and is smaller in diameter to suit within the conductor casing. Its primary purpose is to shield H2O deposits close to the surface of the well from contamination by leaky hydrocarbons or salt water from deeper underground. It additionally is a passage for lubricator returning to the surface and helps defend the excavation from harm throughout drilling. • Intermediate casing is sometimes the longest section of casing found during a well. Its primary purpose is to reduce the hazards related to underground formations that will have an effect on the well. These embrace abnormal underground pressure zones, underground shales and formations which may otherwise contaminate the well, like underground salt water deposits. Liner strings are generally used rather than intermediate casing. Liner strings are sometimes simply hooked up to the previous casing with “hangers” rather than being cemented into place, and area unit therefore less permanent. Production casing, as an alternative known as the “oil string” or '”long string,” is put in last and is that the deepest section of casing during a well. This casing gives a passage from the surface of the well to the petroleum-producing formation. the dimensions of the assembly casing depends on variety of concerns, as well as the lifting instrumentality to be used, the amount of completions needed, and also the risk of deepening the well at a later date. for instance, if it's expected that the well are going to be concentrated later, then the assembly casing should be wide enough to permit the passage of a drilling bit shortly. it's additionally instrumental in preventing blow-outs, permitting the formation to be “sealed” from the highest ought to dangerous pressure levels be reached. Once the casing is put in, conduit is inserted within the casing, from the gap well at the highest to the formation at the lowest. The hydrocarbons that area unit extracted run up this conduit to the surface. The assembly casing is often five to twenty-eight cm (2 -11 in) with most production wells being half-dozen inches or additional. Production depends on reservoir, bore, pressure, etc., and will be but a hundred barrels per day to many thousand barrels per day. A packer is employed between casing and conduit at the lowest of the well. oil and gas courses in kerala

Saturday, 13 October 2018

Oil Refinery


The crude oil industry converts rock oil into quite 2500 refined merchandise, as well as liquefied crude gas, gasoline, kerosene, aviation fuel, diesel oil, fuel oils, lubricating oils, and feed stocks for the organic compound business. Industrial refinery activities begin with receipt of crude for storage at the refinery, embody all crude handling and processing operations, and that they terminate with storage preceding to shipping the refined merchandise from the works. The crude oil industry employs a good type of processes. A refinery’s process flow theme is essentially determined by the composition of the rock oil feedstock and therefore the chosen slate of crude merchandise. The primary innovate crude processing operations is that the separation of rock oil into its major constituents victimization three crude separation processes: Atmospherical distillation, vacuum distillation, and lightweight ends recovery (gas processing). Rock oil consists of a combination of organic compound compounds as well as paraffinic, naphthenic, and aromatic hydrocarbons with little amounts of impurities as well as sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, and metals. Works separation processes separate these rock oil constituents into common boiling-point fractions. To satisfy the stress for high-octane hydrocarbon, jet fuel, and diesel oil, elements like residual oils, fuel oils, light-weight ends are born-again to gasolines and different light fractions. Cracking, coking, and visbreaking processes are accustomed break giant crude molecules into smaller ones. Polymerization and alkylation processes are accustomed mix little crude molecules into larger ones. Changeover and reforming processes are applied to set up the structure of crude molecules to provide higher-value molecules of an identical molecular size. Crude treating processes stabilize and upgrade crude merchandise by separating them from less fascinating merchandise and by removing objectionable components. Undesirable components like sulfur, nitrogen, and are removed by hydro desulfurization, hydro treating, chemical sweetening, and acid gas removal. Treating processes, utilized primarily for the separation of crude merchandise, embody such processes as de asphalting. Desalting is employed to get rid of salt, minerals, grit, and water from rock oil feed stocks before processing. Asphalt processing is employed for polymerizing and stabilizing asphalt to enhance its weathering characteristics. 
The works feedstock and products handling operations accommodates unloading, storage, blending, and loading activities. A good assortment of processes and instrumentation indirectly concerned within the processing of rock oil is employed in functions important to the operation of the works. Examples are boilers, waste water treatment facilities, H plants, cooling towers, and sulfur recovery units. Merchandise from auxiliary facilities (clean water, steam, and method heat) are needed by most method units throughout the works. Method flow schemes, emission characteristics, and emission management technology are mentioned for every method. Lidded crude withdrawn from very cheap atmospherical distillation column consists of high boiling-point hydrocarbons. Once distilled at atmospherical pressures, the rock oil decomposes and polymerizes and can foul instrumentation. To separate lidded crude into elements, it should be distilled in a vacuum column at a very low and in an exceedingly steam atmosphere. Customary crude fractions withdrawn from the vacuum distillation column embody fill up distillates, vacuum oil and gas course in kerala, asphalt stocks, and residual oils. The vacuum within the vacuum distillation column is sometimes maintained by the employment of steam ejectors however could also be maintained by the employment of vacuum pumps. The most important sources of atmospherical emissions from the vacuum distillation column are related to the steam ejectors or vacuum pumps. A serious portion of the vapours withdrawn from the column by the ejectors or pumps is recovered in condensers.

Saturday, 29 September 2018

Welding


Welding is a process in which two or more parts are joined permanently at their touching surfaces by the force of heat and/or pressure. Often a filler material is added that helps in the merging. The parts that are joined together by welding are called a weldment. Factors affecting Weld-ability 1. Melting Point 2. Thermal conductivity 3. Thermal Expansion 4. Surface condition 5. Change in Micro structure. Welding is mainly used in metal parts and their alloys. Welding is of two types : Fusion welding and Solid state welding.1 Fusion welding : In this the base metal is melted by means of heat. Ina fusion welding operation, a filler metal is added to the molten pool to facilitate the process and provide bulk and strength to the joint. The most commonly used fusion welding processes are: arc welding, resistance welding, oxyfuel welding, electron beam welding and laser beam welding. 2. Solid-state welding: In this method joining of parts takes place by the application of pressure or a combination of heat and pressure. No filler metal is used in this . The most commonly used solid-state welding processes are: diffusion welding, friction welding, ultrasonic welding. Arc welding is a method of permanently joining two or more metal parts. It consists of combination of different welding processes wherein merging is done by heating with an electric arc, (mostly without the application of pressure) and with or without the use of filler metals that again depends upon the base plate thickness. A joint is achieved by melting and fusing the adjacent portions of the separate parts. The finally welded joint has a strength approximately equal to that of the base material. 

The arc temperature is maintained approximately at 4400°C. To prevent oxidation, a flux material is used which decomposes under the heat of welding and releases a gas that shields the arc and the hot metal. Precautions in Arc welding courses in kerala 1. Due to the intensity of heat and light rays from the electric arc, the operator’s hand face and eyes are to be protected while arc is in use 2. Heavy gloves are worn 3. Hand shield or a helmet with window of coloured glass must be used to protect the face 4. The space for the electric arc welding should be screened off from the rest of the building to safeguard other workmen from the glare of the arc.The second basic method employs an inert gas to form a protective envelope around the arc and the weld. The commonly used gases are Helium, argon, and carbon dioxide . Other processes that are used in the industry are as follows: 1. Diffusion bonding (DB): in this method parts are pressed together at an elevated temperature below the melting point for a period of time. 2. Explosion welding (EXW): In this method the parts to be welded are driven together at an angle with the help of an explosive charge and fuse together from the friction of the impact. 3. Ultrasonic welding (USW) for metals: This process makes use of transverse oscillation of one part against the other to develop sufficient frictional heat for fusion to occur. 4. Electro slag (ESW) and Electro gas (EGW) processes: In these a molten pool of weld metal contained by copper “shoes” is used to make vertical butt welds in heavy plate.

Monday, 17 September 2018

RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING

Different forms of Radiographic testing are :
Fluoroscopy: In a fluorescent salt screen  the image of the test specimen can be visually seen. The X rays passing through the object excite the fluorescent material producing bright spots in the more heavily irradiated areas. The fluorescent screen may be viewed directly or by means of a mirror or by using a camera and a closed circuit television. t 10 mm thickness, thin metal parts, welded assemblies and coarse sandwich constructions are screened by this method and castings with obvious large defects are rejected before usual inspection using film radiography.
Micro radiography: Micro-radiography is mainly applied in metallurgical studies. The radiograph when enlarged gives the structural details of the specimen.
Enlargement radiography: In some situations an enlarged image of an object is desired. To get the enlargement of the image the object to film distance is increased. To overcome the penumbral effects a source of an extremely small size is used.
High speed or flash radiography : for the radiography of moving objects, the exposure time should be very small and, at the same time, the intensity of the X rays should be extremely high. This is achieved by discharging huge condensers through special X ray tubes which give current of the order of thousands of amperes for a short time (of the order of a millionth of a second). This technique is normally applied in ballistics.
Auto radiography: In this case the specimen itself contains the material in radioactive form. When a film is placed in contact with the specimen, an autoradiograph is obtained showing the distribution of the radioactive material within the specimen. The technique is mainly used in the field of botany and metallurgy.
Electron transmission radiography : a beam of high energy X rays is used to produce photoelectrons from a lead screen. These electrons after passing through the specimen (of very low absorption like paper, etc.) expose the film and an electron radiograph is obtained. 
 Electron emission radiography: In this case a beam of X rays is used to produce photoelectrons from the specimen itself. These electrons expose the film which is placed in contact with the specimen. Since emission of electrons depends upon atomic number of an element, the electron emission will give the distribution of elements of different atomic numbers. 
Neutron radiography: In this case a neutron beam is used to radiograph the specimen. The recording system will, therefore, not be a photosensitive film since it is insensitive to neutrons. The following methods are used to record the image
Proton radiography : For special type of studies a proton beam can also be used. The number of protons transmitted through a specimen whose thickness is close to the proton range is very sensitive to exact thickness. This helps in detecting very small local variations in density and thickness.
 Stereo radiography : Two radiographs of the specimen are taken from two slightly different directions. The angle between these directions is the same as the angle subtended by the human eyes while viewing these radiographs. In the stereo viewer the left eye sees one radiograph and the right eye the other. In this way a realistic three dimensional effect is obtained giving the visual assessment of the position of the defect.
Xeroradiography : This is considered as a "dry" method of radiography in which a xerographic plate takes the place of X ray film. The plate is covered with a selenium powder and charged electrostatically in the dark room. Exposure to light or radiation causes the charge to decay in proportion to the amount of radiation received and a latent image is formed.

Thursday, 13 September 2018

NON – DESTRUCTIVE TESTING


Adequate NDT and inspection by suitably qualified personnel is very much essential during all stages of pipe manufacture, construction and operation. The newly used inspection methods and equipment assist in obtaining the maximum life expectancy from a pipeline reducing the overall operating costs. Fluoroscopy, computed radiography, digital radiography and automated ultrasonic testing helps in improving the probability of detection (POD) of discontinuities. Modern NDT methods have become more quantitative and less obtrusive, which many a time, results in saving over time. Thus it can be said these advanced NDT methods have the potential that could lead to significantly lower repair rates while maintaining existing safety standards .

The Radiation detectors that used are image intensifiers in fluoroscopic and real time imaging systems The equipment that is used to perform Radiographic inspection can be either an X-ray machine or a radioactive isotope that produces gamma radiation. The isotopes help in increased portability as no electrical power supply is required. Electronic imaging panels and phosphorescent imaging screens are used to create digital images for computed and digital radiography. Real time imaging can be used close to the welding station and can detect all the defects at an early stage thus reducing the number of faulty welds produced. Phosphorescent imaging plates in digital radiography replaces X-ray film and processing chemicals. They can be used again and the X-ray images are stored electronically on optical disc. These images can be electronically enhanced to increase or reduce density leading to discontinuities which may have been previously . The phosphorescent imaging screens are flexible and are used in conventional x-ray film. The phosphorescent screens store a latent image which is scanned with an infrared laser scanner and are then viewed on a monitor. Magnification and measuring tools are then used for further evaluation of images. The use of phosphorescent screens require shorter exposure time which can amount to considerable savings.
The primary benefit of UT is that it is a truly volumetric test which means it is capable of determining not only the approximate dimensions and location of a defect, it also provides information to the testing technician regarding the type of defect. Another major advantage of UT is that it requires access to one side of the material to be tested and it will best detect crack’s and incomplete fusion which may not be possible with Radiographic testing. Since a variety of beam angles can be used, UT can detect defect which may not be detectable by radiography .UT requires highly skilled technicians because interpretation of indications are difficult. Reference standards are used for calibration and setting up of the equipment. Test scans can be recorded by equipments providing automated scanning. This test method is generally limited to the inspection of butt welds of materials that are thicker than 6 mm. Automated UT is used in pipe mills where the welds are inspected by a multiple array of probes, scanning the entire weld and detecting any discontinuities at an early stage. AUT is an in-field test method. An array of probes mounted in a scanner are placed on the pipe and the weld area is scanned. An encoder records the probe position with respect to the distance traveled, which allows the weld to be tested in a shorter period of time, resulting in a complete volumetric test of the weld and reducing the number of errors.

Monday, 3 September 2018

IMPACT OF CRUDE OIL TRANSPORT


The increase in crude oil shipments results in environmental and safety risks from accidents that may occur along pipelines, rail lines, waterways and at transshipment sites. All of these modes pose certain risks and each has certain advantages compared with the other modes All the modes of crude oil transport pose potential risks to the environment, public health and safety. All modes of crude oil transport have advantages and disadvantages based on a range of operational, economic and environmental factors and considerations. Modes of transport like railroads, vessels, barges and trucks can carry less of oil in comparison to the pipelines, but their routes are more flexible, allowing oil industry shippers to respond more quickly to changing production locations and volumes and changes in demand from coastal refineries Risk may range from a modest spill on isolated rural land in the winter (limiting ground contamination) to a major catastrophic spill in large water bodies or a derailment-produced spill and fire in a major urban area. Different types of oil influence the mode or modes of transportation chosen and the risks associated with those choices .Manufacturing industries that rely both on oil for their operations and water for their industrial processes and could be impacted by oil spills . A spill in an important and sensitive region can have far-reaching consequences, including both the damage created by the oil itself and the effect of intensive cleanup efforts, which can compound the environmental impacts in ecologically sensitive areas.

A pipeline oil spill, when one occurs, can have severe and long lasting impacts on public health, the environment and regional economy .The age and quality of the pipeline infrastructure are important factors in assessing oil spill risk from this mode .Pipelines result in fewer oil spill incidents and personal injuries than road and rail, and large spills in the recent past shows that the overall impact of a spill on the environment, economy and human health can be serious. Over time the quality of pipeline declines due to structural degradation, cracks caused by corrosion, defective welding or incidental damage from third-party activities. Damages to pipeline infrastructure may contribute to increased risks of a pipeline spill. Pipelines require regular maintenance inspections and constant monitoring during operation. Accidents may occur from undetected structural or mechanical failure and made worse by insufficient or delayed monitoring. Ships and barges pose fewer risks in transporting hazardous liquids than trains and trucks, and have economic advantages over these modes of transport, as well .A barge or tanker ships containing crude oil may undergo severe structural damage and spill cargo as the result of a collision with another ship. The increased volume of rail transport has also led to a rise in oil spill incidents involving trains .Unmonitored crossing points are special risk zones where accidents with automobiles can increase the risk of an oil spill or explosion. Even improperly assembled trains are more susceptible to derailment .Trucks are primarily used to transport oil for relatively short distances because long distance transport by truck is not ordinarily an economical option. Since large trucks are used to transport oil to and from railway transshipment facilities and pipelines, poorly maintained and monitored infrastructure at delivery points and fuel loading terminals could contribute to accidents, including fire and explosion.
Diploma in Oil and Gas Engineering

Tuesday, 14 August 2018

ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF OIL AND GAS

Exploration and production of fossil fuel, have caused several damaging impacts to soils, surface and groundwater and ecosystems These impacts arose primarily from the improper disposal of huge volumes of saline water created with oil and gas, from accidental organic compound and produced-water releases, and from abandoned oil wells that were orphan or not properly blocked .The  Impact of  the   surface level effect within the location of  several acres per well, can even arise from connected activities like web site clearance, construction of roads, tank batteries, brine pits and pipelines, and alternative improvement in land is  necessary for the drilling,exploration and production wells and construction of production facilities. New environmental laws and improved trade practices and technology have reduced the foremost damaging effects of fossil fuel activities. Additionally, some operators have taken steps, sometimes voluntarily, to reverse damages ensuing from fossil fuel operations. Oil and Gas Courses in Kerala.
During drilling, a drilling fluid is unceasingly circulated between the well and also the platform through a ‘riser pipe’. Mud is used to keep a check on the  well pressure and wall stability, to chill and lubricate the bit and to hold the rock chips (cuttings) generated throughout the drilling method far away from the cutting head to the platform. Here, the cuttings area unit part clean and also the majority of drill mud re-used. Mud is  available in a range of forms, passionate about their fluid base. Amongst these are  water primarily {based} mud and oil based mud . Within the past, the majority of clean OBM cuttings were discharged to the bottom together with their residual oily mud contamination. This caused changes to the bottom via a mix of suffocating, organic enrichment and toxicity effects. These were seen to be most severe near to discharging platforms wherever the ‘pile proper’ fashioned, however they ordinarily extended up to a distance of one or two kilometer. These discharges are not any longer allowed. Workers  investigate the likelihood of hydrocarbons being present under the seabed using high intensity sound (seismic surveys).  Species of fish  that are meant for commercial purpose are sensitive to sound and, at close range, larval fish might even be killed by seismic sources. Seismal surveys would possibly thus disturb spawning fish faraway from territory wherever they need chosen to mixture for spawning functions and this might, in extreme circumstances, be harmful to stock productivity, worrying fish faraway from ancient areas may additionally have an effect on fishermen’s catches.
During production, giant amounts of created water  are recovered with hydrocarbons. This can be clean to terribly rigorous standards and a few is re-injected to take care of reservoir pressure. Usually Chemicals of different types are  being used for  treating  the oil, gas and water that is gathered from offshore reservoirs. These are regulated under a harmonized mandatory control scheme. The bulk, however, has historically been discharged to ocean. As fields age and because the amounts of oil remaining fall, the amounts of PW increase. A large kind of chemicals is employed to treat the oil, gas and water that's gathered from offshore reservoirs. Oil and Gas Courses in Kerala.

Tuesday, 7 August 2018

OIL DRILLING


After an organisation determines that an area has enough resources to explore, leases area unit purchased from mineral rights owners (where applicable), permits area unit issued by the state, and conjointly the well pad and access roads area unit created. Drilling may be a comparatively well-understood in technological method however no 2 wells in an unit area are constant and thus risk management is vital. The biggest thought concern with drilling is that the risk of blowouts, that is that the uncontrolled unleash of oil and gas from a well .But a high level of effort is needed by operators and regulators to make sure this doesn't happen. Additionally to that a large array of drilling activities may cause adverse environmental impacts. The bottom clearing will have adverse effects on the ecological surroundings. Air quality and waste management from construction and through drilling is a difficulty. The rise of vehicle and traffic conjointly creates a sway on the native setting. Unconventional O&G drilling then yield in a pair of major phases: directional drilling and well stimulation. Oil and gas courses in kerala
Directional Drilling: the method begins by drilling to all-time low of a water formation. It pulls the loose rocks and the sediment to the surface to be discarded (i.e., drilling muds).Surface casing (steel piping) is inserted into the bore hole to protect recent formations by creating a physical barrier between the geological formation and drilling materials. This casing together may be a foundation for the blowout preventer – a security device that connects the rig to the wellbore. Cement comes out through the casing and out through the gap at all-time low of the casing. The force pushes the cement into the casing and the hole, thus protecting the wellbore from the water. Drilling continues vertically, creating a well 1,828 m deep. The depth of the well will vary by region and formation. Among the Marcellus rock the well is then trained horizontally a 3,048 meters. The casing is inserted once the desired length is achieved. The drilling methodology is presently complete and well stimulation can begin.
Stimulation of well : A gun used for piercing is pushed into the horizontal portion of the well, where electrical current originating from the surface triggers a charge that shoots small holes through the casing and cement. Inside the case , huge volume of water, fracking fluid/chemicals, and sand area unit then tense into the well to fracture the rock formation and unleash the hydrocarbons keep tightly within the rock. In some formations, acidizing is the foremost well-liked stimulation technique. Ohio wells use virtually fifteen, 600 gallons of HCl; American state, 5,100-7,700 gallons. Many sand or proppant, and thousands of gallons of frack fluid area unit then tense into the bottom at terribly high pressures therefore on fracture the rock and unleash gas and/or oil2. Oil can then flow up the well to the surface, at the facet of flow back fluid consisting of variable proportions of the injected fluids, and various liquids from the rock layer like salt-saturated water, drilling muds, or brine. These fluids area unit tense into a waiting pool (impoundment) or in closed storage tanks where the liquid waste area unit reaching to be either recycled and used at another website or disposed of keep with restrictive standards specific to the state throughout that they are disposed. Oil and gas Institute

Monday, 30 July 2018

OIL DRILLING SAFETY


Injuries to oil and gas field service staff occur at double the speed as for general business staff and, of this cluster. The oil and gas drilling employees are exposed to even larger dangers because of the character of this kind of labour. It is vital for drilling operators, within the absence of strict pointers, to confirm that drilling activities are conducted in a safe manner. A sound safety program helps guard against drilling accidents that might cause environmental harm furthermore as injure staff. An honest safety program conjointly has the other advantages of lower insurance rates, lower maintenance prices, fewer worker edges claims, less lost production or productivity, and fewer legal fees and settlements. A number of the foremost common accidents related to drilling need to do with operating the slips, tongs, cat-lines, and elevators that area unit wont to handle the drill pipe, and alternative significant drilling instrumentation. Slippery rig floors and cable breaks conjointly contribute to accidents. Injuries are common either from falling or being hit by swinging objects. Most accidents includes harmful events like blowouts or the collapse of the derrick or mast. Worker coaching programs area unit a vital part of accident interference. Accidents are also reduced once the staff is trained properly, well orientated, impelled and preserved to become career oil field workers. Coaching of workers ought to embody data regarding basic principles of a well drilling operation:
  1. The safe work operations and hazards related to the task.
  2. Purpose and operation of drilling instrumentation,
  3. Sulphide detection and safety instrumentation furthermore as emergency procedures
  4. Fireplace protection and management,
  5. Emergency escape procedures for workers functioning on the derrick mast or in confined areas
  6. Data regarding personal protecting instrumentation. Workers clothing ought to be fitted (not loose) and embody long sleeves and pant legs.
It's conjointly wise that staff not wear jewellery, that hair be short or tied-back, and safety shoes, hard hats, goggles, face shields for fastening, safety glasses and/or hearing protection be worn as per requirement. Worker protection against falls conjointly wants attention. Measures like safety belts, lifelines and lanyards of appropriate strength, safety nets for work areas over 25' off the bottom and ladders in situ of "riding" mounting devices ought to be put in to safeguard employees within the event of a fall.
Precautionary measures for the work would come with correct lighting for performing at night, and therefore the prohibition of flame heaters in doghouses or outbuildings. Drill sites have to be compelled to have no-smoking space designations and fireplace and explosion protection instrumentation. Fire fighting instrumentation must get on hand. Responsibilities of individual staff in such an incident area unit to be announce within the doghouse. Additionally, the native department of local government should be referred to as within the event of a blowout. It's conjointly suggested that operators build regular operational tests of blowout preventers associated conduct coaching so as to be ready within the case of an accident. Mere blowout preventers area unit needed, they ought to be motivated and tested with rig air or another approved methodology before drilling out the shoe of the surface casing. Oil and gas courses in kerala .

Tuesday, 24 July 2018

EXPLORATION AND EVALUATION


Exploration is that the elaborated examination of an area with a mineral interest. Generally, the geographic area has incontestable sufficient potential to justify any exploration to determine whether or not oil and gas square measure gift in business quantities. The activities concerned in exploration square measure kind of like those within the pre‐license prospecting section, but they're typically concentrated on a smaller geographic area. Exploration activities square measure varied ,however square measure may include conducting geographics, geological, geochemical, and geology studies and preliminary drilling. In general exploring the possibility of petroleum involves techniques like conducting seismographic studies, core drilling, and ultimately, if alternative styles of exploration have indicated a sufficient chance that crude exists in business quantities, the drilling of exploratory wells so as to see whether or not business reserves really existed.
The process of analysis involves confirming and finding the presence and extent of reserves that are indicated by previous G&G testing and preliminary drilling. Preliminary wells may have found the presence of petroleum but, analysis and appraisal are typically necessary so as to justify the capital expenditures associated with the event and production of the reserves—in different words confirming that the reserves are industrial. Specifically, when Associate in Nursing preliminary well or multiple preliminary wells are trained into a reservoir and have resulted within the discovery of oil and/or gas reserves, extra wells, called appraisal wells, may be trained to achieve info regarding the dimensions and characteristics of the reservoir, to help in assessing its industrial potential, and to raised estimate the recoverable reserves. Additionally to drilling appraisal wells and presumably more geologic and geology testing, the appraisal and evaluation part usually includes conducting careful engineering studies to see the character and extent of the reserves and therefore the formulation of an inspiration for developing and manufacturing the reserves in order to get most recovery. promoting studies may additionally be necessary, particularly within the case of gas discoveries, so as to guage transportation prices and value potential. In U.S. operations, particularly in areas with a history of production, once associated in Nursing preliminary well finds reserves, the oil and public utility might in short measure the results of drilling so move directly into development.Oil and gas courses in kerala.
This is significantly probably in onshore operations in locations wherever associate degree existing transportation and marketing infrastructure exists. In U.S. domestic offshore operations, the market and transportation infrastructure might also be in place; but, drilling of further wells is also necessary so as to determine whether or not the reserves are capable of construction of a production platform, additional pipelines, and/or onshore facilities to handle the assembly. If further wells are trained in order to work out whether or not reserves are sufficient to justify putting in the mandatory infrastructure, they are typically treated as a section of the exploration part. In operations outside the US, the appraisal and analysis part is additional probably to be necessary and is probably going to far better outlined. PSC and risk service agreements typically specify sure appraisal activities that has got to be administrated by the contractor within the event that associate degree beta well indicates the presence of reserves. In these kinds of agreements, rather than appraisal activities being defined as a separate part, they're typically outlined as a particular set of activities occurring throughout the exploration part.

Sunday, 15 July 2018

REFINERY AND PIPELINE IN INDIA


Indian firms are increasing plant capability and coming up with several green-field refineries. The oil majors of the world are seriously evaluating investments in India. Recently Bharat Petroleum declared the understanding for forming a venture with HPCL (Hindustan oil Corporation Ltd.) for a grassroots refinery. RIL has conjointly declared their interest in increasing processing capability from thirty three MMTPA to fifty MMTPA. India has ambitions to become the hub for oil product exports. Demand for oil product within the Asia Pacific region is calculable to be around twenty five to twenty seven million barrels per day (1.2-1.3 billion tonnes per year) in the year 2010. China with a requirement of around nine million barrels per day (447 million tonnes per year) and Japan at 5.2 million barrels per day (260 million tonnes per year) are expected to dominate future demand for energy product. However, the processing capability within the Asia Pacific region is expected to extend from the present twenty 1.9 million barrels per day (1.09 billion tonnes per year) to a most of twenty five million barrels per day within the year 2010 (Source : business Sources). The export potential in addition to the additional capability additions and new refineries offer a singular opportunity for potential investors. The chance exists within the type of investment in capability additions to the present refineries and forming consortium with non-public and NOCs to line up new refineries. Oil and gas courses in Kerala.
Major oil and organic compound firms would realize chance to partner with NOCs in their green field and enlargements. Further, equipment and technology suppliers will contribute to those that come with their specialized offerings with reference to engineering services, automation, IT, equipment etc. Under the steering of Ministry of fossil oil & Natural Gas and NOCs viz. Indian Oil and HPCL have decided on conducting experiments with numerous mixtures of bio diesel with diesel in State Transport buses in Haryana, Gujarat and urban center. Indian Oil has conjointly signed a MoU with Indian Railways for plantation of Jatropha curcus on railway land. In October 2005, the MoPNG has announced a bio-diesel purchase policy that comes into result from 1.1.2006. As per the policy the NOCs shall purchase bio-diesel of prescribed BIS specification from registered authorized suppliers through twenty purchase centers at a regular worth of US $ .55 per metric capacity unit. The acquisition price would be reviewed by the oil firms each six months with due consideration to plug conditions. Small and medium entrepreneurs would find opportunities in Bio-diesel conversion.
Crude and refined product pipeline infrastructure across the country would need to grow as works capacities grow. As per the present plan, crude and refined product pipeline infrastructure would increase between 4,065 km and 15,788 kilometer . As per the Tenth set up document of designing Commission, gas pipeline investments to the order of US$ 4.6 – 5.7 billion are expected within the plan amount ending 2007. The extra gas currently found within the kilogram basin on the eastern coast is predicted to be monetised between 2008 and 2011, for which extra pipeline investments are predicted. This demand of increase within the pipeline infrastructure within the country would give opportunities for the international gas (transportation) corporations, engineering corporations, EPC contractors and vendors of pipeline and equipments. Oil and Gas Institute

Tuesday, 10 July 2018

UPSTREAM, MIDSTREAM,DOWNSTREAM COMPANIES IN OIL INDUSTRY


Oil industry is divided into upstream, midstream and downstream companies.
Upstream: Companies that are involved in exploration and production of crude oil which mean extracting crude oil from subsurface are called upstream companies. Many national companies and private companies come under this category. They are mainly into  searching for potential underground and under water crude oil and natural gas fields, obtaining permission from the land owners to drill, drilling exploratory wells and then drilling ,conducting geological surveys and operating the wells that recover and bring the crude oil to the surface.
 Midstream companies: These are companies that purchase crude oil from the upstream companies. They further refine it to usable form. They follow the fractional distillation method to produce by products like kerosene, petrol,diesel etc.Refineries come under this category.
Downstream companies: They are involved in the process of purchasing product from midstream companies and sell it to the retailers.Oil marketing companies like Hindustan petroleum and Bharat petroleum come under this category.
Companies that come under the midstream and downstream have started playing the role of both hence categorizing companies is very difficult.Oil and gas courses.
The upstream industry requires huge amount of money to build the structure and maintain it. Maintenance is a fraction of the investment but is expensive. The upstream section involves a lot of risk and is rewarding at the same time. Political instability and seasonal weather patterns affect this sector. This sector is regulated by government and environmental entities. There is a visible change in the technology and hence the oil and gas industry is looking for skilled workers in all fields. The midstream sector doesn’t involve much risk and is a highly regulated segment of the oil and gas industry. Many companies are benefited from the midstream sector because of the different ways oil and gas is processed, transported and stored. Before moving to the downstream process technological companies benefit by trying to find efficient ways to transport and store the oil and gas.
The downstream companies on the other hand are not capital intensive. It deals with huge amount of money in transactions. This sector provides the easiest  connection to the everyday consumers. Some of the products of the downstream sector are Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Gasoline,Diesel Oil, Jet Fuel, Heating Oil, Synthetic Rubber, Plastics Lubricants, Fertilizers,   Pesticides etc. This sector plays  a major role in several  other industries because the products  refined and produced are used in many ways. The downstream sector produces plastics  which is used by many of the industries in packing or manufacturing. Natural  gas  of the downstream  plays a major role in the production of fertilizers and pesticides. The farm equipment's also run on the fuel produced in the downstream. Conventional transportation methods such as trucks, boats etc are required for the transportation of processed  natural gas and oil products. The downstream also influences the medical  industry  through the production of pharmaceuticals and medical equipment's. The downstream industry also creates a lot of job opportunities and thus plays a major role in the economy of the country.
Oil and Gas Courses in Kerala

Sunday, 8 July 2018

CRUDE OIL


Crude oil is in news right now with OPEC meeting this week. Crude Oil is under pressure on back of statement from Saudi Arabia which says there is unlikely to be consensus for production cuts. Adding to that is news that US Federal Reserve is looking to restrict bank involvement in physical commodities. Saudi Arabia is willing to make concessions in terms of its oil production, if Iran is willing to participate too. Iran has politely declined of holding its production at 3.6 million barrel per day (bpd). OPEC crude producers are preparing to increase production to the world at large. They are Libya and Nigeria. Both countries combined are expected to supply additional 8,00,000 barrels a day which will add more woes to already oversupplied crude oil market. Reduction in demand both in China and India has also contributed crude oil prices to weaken further in the face of near record output from OPEC producers. The International Energy Agency (IEA) has said, “Supply will continue to outpace demand into 2017.”Oil and Gas Courses in Kerala.

Recently crude oil is showing greater sensitivity . Since last month crude oil gained more than 9 per cent when inventory was declining but now with increasing production from Libya and Nigeria plus expectation of no positive deal this OPEC meeting has made crude oil vulnerable and correcting more than 5 per cent in 2 trading session. This year the US summer seasonal weekly inventory change is now running between the 3- and 5-year averages. However inventories haven’t done anything too out of the ordinary this summer even as US production has decreased. US shale production is expected to remain steady as long as crude is between $40 and $60

The production rate of US rigs has reduced since last year from March 2015 till March 2016 because of weak crude oil prices. However because of technological advancement, the scenario is that rig counts have decreased by 50 per cent in a year yet the production has only decreased by 12 per cent. The productivity has doubled in a year and any increase in productivity will be a huge threat to crude oil prices in future. Saudi Arabia now no longer controls the oil market, with US increasing its productivity. The number of active US oil drilling rigs has increased this week. Despite the negative fundamentals, technically crude oil still looks neutral to bullish. Large correction is expected if crude oil breaks below Rs 2850 per barrel. Crude oil is expected to trade in range and any breakout will come above Rs 3,200 or breakdown below Rs 2,850, till then it will be range-bound. Short term support for crude comes at Rs 2945 per barrel which is the trendline drawn from the swing low. It will be frustrating time for traders in crude oil as clear trend will not materialise until crude oil breaks out from the trading range.

Crude oil saw a reduction in prices in Asia thus commodity hitting 11-month highs earlier in the week. The losses were in line with a the sell-off on equities markets from Asia to the Americas led to losses which created a fear about the state of the global economy. The increase in US unemployment numbers, have made oil more expensive and dampening the demand. The new signs of tightening supplies can boost oil futures .If the positive developments we are seeing like the tightening supply (and) increasing demand in the oil sector continue to develop for the next couple of months, then maybe the strengthening US dollar might not have that great impact.

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Wednesday, 4 July 2018

OIL INDUSTRY

It has been a tumultuous five years for the oil industry.  Back in 2013 the sector was basking in earnings they had not seen since the financial crisis and as prices reached a high of $115 a barrel in the middle of 2014, Big Oil (the world’s largest six or seven publicly traded oil and gas companies) readied itself for another year of bumper profits. But as the cyclical nature of the industry dictates, the good times had to come to an end. By early 2015, only six months after reaching new highs, oil prices had plummeted below the $50 mark and by early 2016 prices had reached the trough at just $30.
Big Oil responded as it always does: by cutting costs and spending. When times get tough the oil industry becomes amazed at how wasteful it has been when oil prices were high, and always manages to find billions in savings when forced to, albeit with a lot of help from the oilfield services industry that has to ride in their wake.  With a sector now fit for business and back in profit, oil prices have continued to climb, reaching $78 in May 2018 (its highest level in over three years) with current prices only lingering just below that.
The current support behind oil prices is largely being driven by concerns over tightening supply in the global oil market. Political instability in both Venezuela and Libya, combined with imminent US sanctions on Iran, threatens as much as two million barrels of daily supplies – equal to over 2% of global daily production. Venezuela’s oil output has already dropped off a cliff, falling by around 700,000 barrels per day over the last year or so, and there are concerns over Libya’s contribution of one million barrels per day due to militia in the country threatening to hand over key oil ports to rivals of the state-owned oil company.
For Iran, the third largest producing country in the Organisation of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), contributing about 3.8 million barrels per day, the situation is even more dire. Since the US pulled out of the Iran nuclear deal and warned it would impose new sanctions on the country, it has now been reported that the US is pressuring its allies to stop all imports of crude from Iran by November, which would be a much tougher stance than many first expected. With such a large amount of OPEC’s 32.4 million barrels of daily output under threat, the organisation’s leader, Saudi Arabia, and non-OPEC member but now close partner Russia have agreed to take action to plug the gap. Following the most recent meeting, the pair announced the organisation had agreed to raise daily output by one million barrels per day. Importantly, both Saudi Arabia and Russia are looking to add the majority of that bump-up in production, helping them to steal market share from other countries. However, Iran has claimed that no other member outside of Saudi Arabia or Russia had been given the go-ahead to turn on the taps, and has said that this will see a much smaller rise in OPEC production, of around 500,000 barrels daily. While Saudi Arabia is by far OPEC’s largest producer and willing to leverage its own excess capacity to get its point across to the market, there are concerns that it does not have as much as capacity as is needed.
Although OPEC only accounts for about one-third of global production, it is the closest thing there is to a central bank for the oil industry, tasked with balancing supply and demand and steering prices. This was especially true ten years ago, when the US was solely reliant on importing oil and producing just three million barrels per day. But the take-off of US shale has revolutionised the country’s energy production industry and pushed the US’s daily output to over eight million barrels per day in January 2018.In fact, the US will produce more energy than it needs within the next decade.This will make the US an energy exporter and rebalancing the relationship between the country and OPEC after decades of being heavily reliant on energy imports, albeit mostly from Canada but also from member nations. So, if the US has a growing oil industry and is slowly becoming less reliant on imports, why does it still rely on OPEC to manage the market and why does it want lower prices?
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