Friday, 26 October 2018

Well Casing

Well Casing
Installing the well casing is a vital a part of the drilling and completion method. Well casing consists of a series of metal tubes put in within the freshly trained hole. Casing serves to strengthen the perimeters of the well hole, make sure that no oil or fossil fuel seeps out because it is dropped at the surface, and keep different fluids or gases from oozy into the formation through the well. The designing is important to confirm that the correct casing for every well is put in. Types of casing used rely on underground characteristics of the well, as well as the diameter of the well that again depends on the dimensions of the drilling bit used and also the pressures and temperatures fully fledged. In most wells, the diameter of the well hole decreases the deeper it's trained, resulting in a cone like shape that has to be taken under consideration once putting in casing.

There are 5 differing types of well casing. Conductor casing is a method in which casing is done before the actual drilling to prevent from caving in and to assist in bringing the lubricator up from the lowest of the well. • Surface casing is that the next sort of casing to be put in. It is anyplace from a hundred to four hundred meters long, and is smaller in diameter to suit within the conductor casing. Its primary purpose is to shield H2O deposits close to the surface of the well from contamination by leaky hydrocarbons or salt water from deeper underground. It additionally is a passage for lubricator returning to the surface and helps defend the excavation from harm throughout drilling. • Intermediate casing is sometimes the longest section of casing found during a well. Its primary purpose is to reduce the hazards related to underground formations that will have an effect on the well. These embrace abnormal underground pressure zones, underground shales and formations which may otherwise contaminate the well, like underground salt water deposits. Liner strings are generally used rather than intermediate casing. Liner strings are sometimes simply hooked up to the previous casing with “hangers” rather than being cemented into place, and area unit therefore less permanent. Production casing, as an alternative known as the “oil string” or '”long string,” is put in last and is that the deepest section of casing during a well. This casing gives a passage from the surface of the well to the petroleum-producing formation. the dimensions of the assembly casing depends on variety of concerns, as well as the lifting instrumentality to be used, the amount of completions needed, and also the risk of deepening the well at a later date. for instance, if it's expected that the well are going to be concentrated later, then the assembly casing should be wide enough to permit the passage of a drilling bit shortly. it's additionally instrumental in preventing blow-outs, permitting the formation to be “sealed” from the highest ought to dangerous pressure levels be reached. Once the casing is put in, conduit is inserted within the casing, from the gap well at the highest to the formation at the lowest. The hydrocarbons that area unit extracted run up this conduit to the surface. The assembly casing is often five to twenty-eight cm (2 -11 in) with most production wells being half-dozen inches or additional. Production depends on reservoir, bore, pressure, etc., and will be but a hundred barrels per day to many thousand barrels per day. A packer is employed between casing and conduit at the lowest of the well. oil and gas courses in kerala

Saturday, 13 October 2018

Oil Refinery

The crude oil industry converts rock oil into quite 2500 refined merchandise, as well as liquefied crude gas, gasoline, kerosene, aviation fuel, diesel oil, fuel oils, lubricating oils, and feed stocks for the organic compound business. Industrial refinery activities begin with receipt of crude for storage at the refinery, embody all crude handling and processing operations, and that they terminate with storage preceding to shipping the refined merchandise from the works. The crude oil industry employs a good type of processes. A refinery’s process flow theme is essentially determined by the composition of the rock oil feedstock and therefore the chosen slate of crude merchandise. The primary innovate crude processing operations is that the separation of rock oil into its major constituents victimization three crude separation processes: Atmospherical distillation, vacuum distillation, and lightweight ends recovery (gas processing). Rock oil consists of a combination of organic compound compounds as well as paraffinic, naphthenic, and aromatic hydrocarbons with little amounts of impurities as well as sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, and metals. Works separation processes separate these rock oil constituents into common boiling-point fractions. To satisfy the stress for high-octane hydrocarbon, jet fuel, and diesel oil, elements like residual oils, fuel oils, light-weight ends are born-again to gasolines and different light fractions. Cracking, coking, and visbreaking processes are accustomed break giant crude molecules into smaller ones. Polymerization and alkylation processes are accustomed mix little crude molecules into larger ones. Changeover and reforming processes are applied to set up the structure of crude molecules to provide higher-value molecules of an identical molecular size. Crude treating processes stabilize and upgrade crude merchandise by separating them from less fascinating merchandise and by removing objectionable components. Undesirable components like sulfur, nitrogen, and are removed by hydro desulfurization, hydro treating, chemical sweetening, and acid gas removal. Treating processes, utilized primarily for the separation of crude merchandise, embody such processes as de asphalting. Desalting is employed to get rid of salt, minerals, grit, and water from rock oil feed stocks before processing. Asphalt processing is employed for polymerizing and stabilizing asphalt to enhance its weathering characteristics. 
The works feedstock and products handling operations accommodates unloading, storage, blending, and loading activities. A good assortment of processes and instrumentation indirectly concerned within the processing of rock oil is employed in functions important to the operation of the works. Examples are boilers, waste water treatment facilities, H plants, cooling towers, and sulfur recovery units. Merchandise from auxiliary facilities (clean water, steam, and method heat) are needed by most method units throughout the works. Method flow schemes, emission characteristics, and emission management technology are mentioned for every method. Lidded crude withdrawn from very cheap atmospherical distillation column consists of high boiling-point hydrocarbons. Once distilled at atmospherical pressures, the rock oil decomposes and polymerizes and can foul instrumentation. To separate lidded crude into elements, it should be distilled in a vacuum column at a very low and in an exceedingly steam atmosphere. Customary crude fractions withdrawn from the vacuum distillation column embody fill up distillates, vacuum oil and gas course in kerala, asphalt stocks, and residual oils. The vacuum within the vacuum distillation column is sometimes maintained by the employment of steam ejectors however could also be maintained by the employment of vacuum pumps. The most important sources of atmospherical emissions from the vacuum distillation column are related to the steam ejectors or vacuum pumps. A serious portion of the vapours withdrawn from the column by the ejectors or pumps is recovered in condensers.