Monday, 31 December 2018

What is meant by pipe fabrication?

Pipelines are used to transport fluids, including vapors, gases, slurries and powders which flow through pipes at various pressures and temperatures. The transmission of these materials leads to intense stresses and strains and this demands the highest possible performance from the pipe. All pipework must be designed and fabricated in a way that ensures the safety of plant operators, the plant, the public and the environment. The fabricator who is responsible for the quality of the pipework fabrication must carry out work in accordance with all relevant standards and specifications. One mistake may lead to damage of millions of dollars, personal injury and in serious cases even death. Excellence in materials and quality of work is what is expected from welded pipe systems. Because high standards are required, the cost of pipework is extremely high. There must be a high degree of quality control when high-pressure pipe systems are being fabricated to ensure that they meet the specifications of the relevant codes. 
The inspecting authority may be the machinery inspection branch of the state or territory government, the insurance company underwriting the job or the representatives of the client for whom the pipework is being fabricated. The steps involved in the quality control program are: 1. Approval of the design of the pipe system. 2. Approval of the fabricator who may have to prove that there is adequate equipment and expert personnel to successfully meet the requirements of the relevant code(s). 3. Frequent checks to ensure that the specified material is being used. 4. Approval of welding procedures and regular inspections to ensure that these procedures are being followed. 5. Qualification of welders who are tested to ensure that they are capable of carrying out the approved procedures successfully. 6. Non-destructive testing as required by the code(s). 7. Post-weld heat treatment as required by the code(s). 8. Final hydrostatic testing or alternative testing method. Fabricators are responsible for the quality of the work they perform and for the coordination of all inspection and testing procedures as required by the relevant code(s). Pipe is specified by stating its nominal size (NS), which is only approximate. Nominal size is neither the inside nor the outside diameter and it is necessary to use standard tables or manufacturers’ tables to ascertain these two dimensions exactly. Pipe thicknesses are often described as ‘standard’ (STD), ‘extra strong’ (XS) and ‘double extra strong’ (XXS). However, most manufacturers have adopted the American piping code classification which classifies pipes into a schedule system. The mass of the pipe is referred to as the schedule of pipe, and may vary from Schedule 10 to Schedule 160. As the schedule number increases so does the wall thickness, and as a consequence the inside diameter reduces. The outside diameters remain constant enabling standardization of pipe brackets or threading. Pipes are sometimes referred to as tubes. The primary difference is in how they are measured, Boiler tubes and tubing are known by their outside diameter and their wall thickness. Socket-welded fittings allow for easy fabrication and fit-up of piping. Square end preparation of the pipe is all that is required and fillet welds are used, preferably made in two passes. Lower levels of operator skill are required to assemble and weld socket joints than are required for butt joints. The socket-welding system is preferable to the screwed system as it is simpler to assemble and avoids the possibility of leakage which sometimes arises in screwed joints.

Friday, 21 December 2018

What role does a petrochemical industry play?

Petrochemicals offer the main basic desires of quickly growing, increasing and extremely technical civilization as a supply of energy for domestic, industrial, transport sectors and as feed stock for fertilizers, artificial fibers, artificial rubbers, polymers, intermediates, explosives, agro chemicals, dyes, and paints etc. fashionable organic compound business fulfill the need of huge range of merchandise that area unit being employed in some or different kind in standard of living and additionally closely joined with the socio- economic aspiration of individuals which has packaging to agriculture, cars to telecommunication, construction to home appliances, health care to private care, pesticides to chemical, textile to tyre twine, chemicals to dyes, prescribed drugs and explosives . There's hardly any space of our life that's not compacted by petrochemicals. The organic compound business is very technological and capital intensive. Developments in organic compound technology area unit happening in no time. Tremendous resources and efforts area unit being unceasingly spent on increasing size of the plant, the yield through continuous up-gradation of catalyst, reducing energy consumption and value reduction through novel method rate, new chemistries or proportion approaches. Because of immense population, the per capita consumption of petrochemicals in Asian nation is concerning 506 kg compared to international weighted average twenty five kilo and China’s consumption of around 25-30 kilo. Oil and Gas courses in kerala purification and steam cracking of hydrocarbon and gas (ethane & propane) are the common routes of manufacturing petrochemicals. Several Indian refineries are currently getting into petrochemicals in an exceedingly huge means through inexperienced field comes and expansions. The potential in Asian nation will simply be fanciful, currently with growth in numerous sectors of economy like auto motives, construction, textiles etc starting off well. The organic compound complexes involve one or a mixture of the subsequent operations • The manufacture of basic raw materials like syn gas, methane, ethylene, propylene, acetylene, butadiene, benzene, toluene, xylene, etc. the fundamental building processes embody partial reaction, steam reforming, chemical change and thermal cracking, alkylation, dealkylation, chemical process, disproportional, isomerization, etc. The usually used unit operations area unit distillation, extractive distillation, azeotropic distillation, crystallizing, membrane separation, adsorption, absorption, solvent extraction, etc. • Manufacture of intermediate chemicals derived from the on top of basic chemicals by numerous unit processes like reaction, chemical process, chlorination, nitration, alkylation, dehydrogenation at the side of numerous unit operations like distillation, absorption, extraction, adsorption, etc. • Manufacture of target chemicals and polymers that will be utilized in the manufacture of target merchandise and chemicals to satisfy the patron desires. It includes plastics, artificial fibers, gum elastic, detergents, explosives, dyes, intermediates, and pesticides.
The petrochemical business has been the quickest growing sectors in Asian nation and become a significant section of industry, that is growing quicker than industries overall and inside chemicals. it's posed serious threat to industry supported natural feed stock – Biomass and Coal. The organic compound business is major provider of chemical inputs to an outsized and growing range of downstream. The Indian industry ranks twelfth by volume within the world for production of chemicals and accounts for concerning 14 percent within the general index of commercial production and 6 percent within the producing sector. It accounts for 13-14 percent of total exports and 8-9 percent of total imports of the country. It contributes three percent to the GDP . It contributes 13 percent of the producing industry's price supplemental and 8 percent of the overall exports of the country.

Friday, 14 December 2018

What is the impact of Oil prices on the Indian economy?

The recent rise in the costs of crude oil has drawn everyone’s attention towards the crucial role that oil plays within the economy of any nation. Crude oil is one in all the foremost necessitated commodities within the world and India imports around a hundred million heaps of petroleum and alternative rock oil product. This successively, ends up in spending a huge amount of foreign exchange. The increasing quantum of imports of rock oil product has an important impact on the Indian economy, particularly once petroleum costs area unit taking drugs globally. Crude oil not only supplies energy however additionally it acts as a serious stuff to varied industries. With no major discoveries within the recent years, the increasing prices of production have pushed up petroleum costs globally. Also, the high volatility within the costs of oil breaching the $100/barrel mark and rising to a high of $147/barrel can be attributed to the very fact that within the recent years, several index funds have taken positions in commodities considering oil to be associate plus stock in their portfolios. In India, the rating theme is intended in such some way that it offers a system to moderate the soaring international oil costs and thereby study the impact on growth, inflation, etc. 

This spike in oil value considerably will increase the energy prices of each country and becomes a serious concern within the fragile world economy. The impact of rising oil costs on the economy differs from country to country relying upon individual energy provide and demand structures. Countries that might be adversely littered with the rise in oil value are typically characterized by high internet imports of oil per value. Historically, the non-oil manufacturing developing countries fall into this class. Against this background, developed countries are a lot of economical in their usage of oil and gas thus, see associate easing of this adverse result of rise in oil costs. There is a negative impact of rise in petroleum costs. A steep fall within the current accounts ends up in any worsening of the treasury budgets, which, in turn, can any worsen the balance between savings and investments. Also, reducing tax revenues and alternative extraneous factors can worsen the treasury budgets. Because of the economic condition in Europe, wherever the treasury budgets have jolted, there's a monumental imbalance between savings and investments. These imbalances continue worsening owing to rising oil costs,that threaten to push the economy into a lot of deeper crisis. Once there a fixed nominal exchange rate associated and there's additionally an output gap, an increase in oil costs ends up in a rise within the general value levels. Thus all oil importing countries faced the threat of oil shock; India, being a serious oil businessperson, was significantly affected. In India, increase in rock oil costs usually ends up in debates among the general public. This indirectly ends up in delay in any quite adjustment in costs and within the long-standing time, creates an even bigger shock. It additionally impacts the costs of all those commodities that use these product as inputs.

Friday, 7 December 2018

What are the various welding processes?

The various types of welding processes are as follows:
Arc welding processes: Arc welding could be a technique of for good connection for a lot of metal components. It consists of combination of various attachment processes whereby conglutination is created by heating with an electrical arc, (mostly while not the applying of pressure) and with or while not the employment of filler metals relying upon the bottom plate thickness. A same joint is achieved by melting and fusing the adjacent parts of the separate components. The ultimate welded joint has strength that is adequate to that of the bottom material. The arc temperature is maintained around 4400°C. A flux material is employed to forestall oxidization, that decomposes beneath the warmth of attachment and releases a gas that shields the arc and also the hot metal.
Shielded-Metal Arc (SMAW) or Stick welding: this is often associated with arc attachment method whereby a combination is created by heating the work with an electrical arc setup between a flux-coated conductor and also the work. The conductor is a rod coated with flux.
Submerged Arc attachment (SAW): this is often another style of arc attachment method, during which a union is created by heating the work with an electrical arc setup between the blank conductor and also the work piece. Liquefied pool remains fully hidden beneath a blanket of granular material referred to as flux. The conductor is a wire and is endlessly fed from a reel. Movement of the weld gun, dispensing of the flux and finding out of surplus flux granules behind the gun are sometimes automatic.
Flux-Cored Arc attachment (FCAW) This method is analogous to the shielded-arc stick attachment method with the most distinction being the flux is within the attachment rod. Tubular, volute and endlessly fed conductor containing flux within the conductor is employed, thereby, saving the value of fixing the attachment. Sometimes, outwardly provided gas is employed to help in shielding the arc.
Gas-Metal Arc attachment (GMAW) during this method associate degree element like atomic number 18, helium, greenhouse emission or a combination of them are accustomed to atmospheric contamination of the weld. The shielding gas is then allowed to flow through the weld gun. The conductor used here is during a wire kind, fed endlessly at a set rate. The wire is consumed throughout the method and thereby provides filler metal.
Gas-Tungsten Arc attachment (GTAW): This method is additionally called tungsten–inert gas (TIG) attachment. This is often kind of like the Gas Metal Arc attachment method, distinction being the conductor is non expendable and doesn't offer filler metal during this case. A gas protect (usually inert gas) is employed as within the GMAW method. If the filler metal is needed, associate degree auxiliary rod is employed.
Plasma Arc attachment (PAW) This method is analogous to TIG. A non-consumable conductor is employed during this method. Arc plasma could be a state of gas. The gas gets ionized once the passage of electrical current and becomes a conductor of electricity. The plasma consists of a combination of free electrons, positive ions, and neutral particles. Plasma arc attachment differs from GTAW attachment within the quantity of ionized gas that is greatly augmented in plasma arc attachment, and it's this ionized gas that gives the warmth of attachment.
Oxyfuel Gas attachment (OFW): This method is additionally called ox-acetylene attachment. Heat is provided by the combustion of alkyne during a stream of atomic number 8, each gases are provided to the torch through versatile hoses. Heat from this torch is lower and much less focused than that from an electrical arc.
Resistance welding: Resistance welding could be a cluster of attachment method within which a is created by the warmth obtained from the resistance of the work to the flow of electrical current during a circuit of which the work could be a half and by the applying of pressure. No filler metal is required during this method.
Electron-Beam welding (EBW): beam welding is outlined as a fusion attachment method whereby conglutination is created by the warmth obtained from a focused beam of high rate lepton. Once high rate electrons strike the work piece, mechanical energy is remodeled into thermal energy inflicting localized heating and melting of the weld metal. The beam generation takes place during a vacuum, and also the method works best once the whole operation and also the work piece are during a high vacuum of 10-4torr or lower. However, radiations particularly ray, infrared and ultraviolet illumination generates and also the attachment operator should be protected.
Laser Beam welding (LBW): this is a fusion attachment method and a new form is achieved by utilizing the warmth obtained from a focused coherent beam of light and natural event upon the surface to be joined. This method uses the energy in a focused beam of coherent, mono-chromatic light-weight to soften the weld metal.
Friction welding (FRW): In friction attachment (solid state attachment process) a new form is created by utilizing the warmth obtained from the automatically iatrogenic rotating motion between the rubbing surfaces. Once the temperature at the interface of the 2 components is sufficiently high, the rotation is stopped and augmented axial force is applied. This fuses the 2 components along. The motility force is provided through a robust motor or a regulator.  welding inspector course in kerala