Friday, 1 February 2019

The composition of produced petroleum?

The molecular and atom composition of the  fossil fuel is set by complicated chemical, physical, and biological processes.Generation and expulsion from the supply rocks, is a part of the process because the fossil fuel moves from supply to reservoir, reservoir fill history, and secondary alteration processes  and all influence oil and gas compositions. Every supply facies generates oil with distinct chemical composition that reflects organic phenomenon input, depositional setting, and thermal history . For example, a body of water and coal supply rocks generate waxy, low-sulfur crudes, whereas carbonate and deposit supply rocks generate mineral, high-sulfur crudes. These integrative variations are most apparent throughout the initial stages of oil expulsion and quieten down distinct because the supply issue through catagenes is wherever secondary cracking reactions become prevailing.
Although fossil fuel comes from biological organic matter, most of the individual compounds can't be allotted to a selected organic chemistry precursor. Some fossil fuel hydrocarbons, termed bio-markers, retain enough of their original carbon structure that a possible organic chemistry precursor will be allotted.The abundance and distribution of bio-markers permit geo-chemists to understand  the origin and thermal history of oils. Once generated and expelled from the supply rock, fossil fuel composition will be any changed throughout migration and defense at intervals the reservoir. In most fossil fuel systems, the supply formation is at larger temperature and pressure than the reservoir and migrating fossil fuel fluid might separate into gas and liquid phases that may then migrate severally.Petroleum conjointly interacts with water and also the a lot of soluble hydrocarbons might by selection partition into the binary compound part.Once within the reservoir, secondary processes will alter oil composition. The consumption of hydrocarbons by microorganisms,usually  takes place in the  shallow, cool reservoirs (<80°C).This method by selection removes saturated hydrocarbons, enriching the residual rock oil in polar and mineral material. Bio degradation forms acids and biogenic CH4, CO2, and H2S. microbic alteration of crude oils could be a comparatively quick method and will occur naturally or result from poor production practices. Thermochemical sulphate reduction (TSR) is another reservoir alteration process that may have an effect on oil quality and amount. it's a chemical reaction method that happens at comparatively high temperatures (>120°C), wherever hydrocarbons are  modified to carbonic acid gas and sulphate is reduced to H2S.The petroleum is depleted in saturated hydrocarbons and enriched in sulfur-aromatic species. Reservoir charging and fill history can also alter oil composition.The composition of rock oil that arrives at a works isn't similar to reservoir fluids. Gas and water is separated at the well head and emulsions are broken. Consequently, oil loses some light-weight hydrocarbons (throughout production and transport). Pipeline and tanker oils are a  blend of oils from multiple fields and reservoirs, that on an individual basis could also be of variable composition and quality. Thus  testing of subterraneous fluids from individual reservoirs is important to see field economic science and style reservoir management practices.

The accumulation of economic quantities of fossil fuel (oil and gas) invloves a series of processes  that occur at intervals  at substance basins. Organic-rich sediments are deposited solely beneath specific conditions that promote the assemblage and/or transport of biogenic organic compounds and also the selective preservation of this material. The substance organic matter converts to kerogen, associate degree insoluble molecule with a composition that reflects the organic phenomenon input and chemical alterations (sulfurization, condensation, de functionalization, and aromatization) that occur throughout diagenesis. Once lithofied, these organic-rich strata have the potential to come up with oil and gas once buried and heated to push thermal cracking. Expelled fossil fuel migrates from the supply through fractures and porous strata. Economic reserves occur once earth science conditions yield the buildup, retention, and preservation of great volumes of migrated fossil fuel. 

Friday, 25 January 2019

What comes under Drilling and well operations

Drilling and well operations are at all times be carried out in a safe and prudent manner in accordance with formal plans and requirements. Relevant equipment specifications for operation and maintenance with associated limitations to the extent necessary are reflected in applicable operations and maintenance procedures. Measures are taken to ensure high regularity throughout operations. Exact position of the well and the distance to other wells in the vicinity shall be known at all times. Drilling and Well operation are to be performed with the barriers in place according to the Drilling/Well Operations Program.Operational measures are to be taken to prevent blow-out, fire, explosion, pollution or other damage. Well Control Procedures are been defined and agreed to in advance, and followed accordingly. All drills carried out are to be documented. This relates to the following: • Drilling ∗ Directional Drilling ∗ Casing Running ∗ Drilling Fluid handling ∗ Cementing ∗ Logging • Well Evaluation & Testing • Completion • Start-up & Production ∗ Preparations prior to Perforation ∗ Perforation and Production • Well Intervention ∗ Testing and Maintenance ∗ Wireline, Coiled Tubing, Snubbing Operations Through Tubing ∗ Fluid Operations • Plugging/Abandonment .

It is important that required documentation and certification of the facilities remain valid when demobilisation commences, so as to demonstrate suitability, regulatory compliance and compatibility with required standards. Plans for demobilisation assume prior consultation and concurrence by the operator/owner of the equipment and existing facilities. Any need for safety & emergency systems must be addressed. The specifications for removal and shipment are subject to concurrence by responsible parties by commencement demobilisation. Considerations for simultaneous activities must have to be made. Rigging down equipment and handling for shipment to shore which are not considered as ordinary operations, needs to have a pre-job meeting or a Safe Job Analysis (SJA) with involved personnel by commencement of these jobs (ref. Annex A). Further, the already existing safety requirements must be observed and followed, including any directions given by the offshore installation management .Besides the Operators own assessment of performance has to be done. For the purpose of the continuous improvement and transfer of experience, the Contractor is encouraged to advise the Operator of such matters as: a) Challenges in performance versus set goals for the activity. b) Contractor's suggestions for improvements/simplifications in work processes and methods that might contribute to more efficient/cost effective performance by the Operator and his other contractors for future work. c) Information and feedback from incidents, events, conditions and other matters arising during operations or affecting performance of the services and which have reinforced or changed the contractor's knowledge about specific subjects; or which have resulted in or might lead to changes in Contractor's relevant documentation, methods or work processes. d) Contractor's assessment of deviations from this standard and mandatory requirements, including recommendations for the future. An assessment of measures for reduced fuel/energy demands and steps to reduce the consumption of chemicals and use of chemicals with better environmental characteristics shall be part of the continuous improvement process. The technology that is there for reducing discharges to the sea and emissions to the air are to be continuously evaluated. There has to be some systems in place for handling waste and keeping track of chemicals/substances onboard. Discharges must have to be within the SFT’s regulatory requirements or in the actual discharge permit for the operation. The discharge of drilling fluids and the well stimulation fluids etc. Must be minimised, by reuse of other effort to reduce discharges. All discharges to sea as a results of cementing operations must have to be minimised for both environmental and economical reasons.

Saturday, 19 January 2019

Crude oil distillation

The crude oil distillation systems, with the distillation columns and their heat recovery systems, comes under the first stage of processing in a petroleum refinery. It is an energy intensive process, that consumes fuels at an equivalent of 1% to 2% of the crude oil processed . As the price of energy increases, there must be a reduction in the energy requirement of the crude oil distillation process. At the same time, the environmental problems have resulted in stricter regulations on the emission of green house gases. Consequently, both economic and environmental issues are an important factor in the design of crude oil distillation system. In the crude oil distillation systems, the distillation columns have an interaction with the associated heat recovery systems. In Comparison to the conventional design approach of crude oil distillation systems, the heat-integrated design approach finds a better solution, from which the minimized energy consumption can be obtained. Less energy consumption also means less gas emissions, which is again beneficial for the environment. The heat-integrated design approach is supported by shortcut column models and the pinch analysis method. In order to apply shortcut column models, product specifications in the refineries have to be translated into specifications required by shortcut column models. But there are a lot of limitations present in the existing translation met The crude oil distillation systems contain distillation columns and heat recovery systems (i.e. heat exchanger networks). Usually , the design of distillation columns and the design of heat recovery systems are carried out in a sequential manner. This sequential design approach may miss energy-saving opportunities, and as such several research has been carried out on the heat integrated design approach, which considers the design of distillation columns and their heat recovery systems simultaneously.
The importance of heat-integrated design of crude oil distillation systems has always been a topic of discussion. Several shortcut column models have been applied to develop a heat-integrated design methodology. The reason for using shortcut models is that they are simpler and more robust, compared to rigorous column models .The models and constraints are then incorporated into an optimization framework, that allows the design variables to be optimized in order to minimize the total annualized cost. The major components of the optimization framework are the simulations of crude oil and gas distillation columns and the heat exchanger networks (HEN). In order to optimize the design of crude oil distillation systems, the distillation column and the HEN have to be simulated first. For grassroots design, an initial feasible design is required; while for retrofit design, the existing units are simulated. After the simulations are established, they are then included in the optimization, which aims to minimize the total annualized cost or maximize profit. During the optimization, the column design parameters tend to become adjustable variables, e.g. preheat crude feed temperature, pump-around flow rates; some configuration parameters of the HEN can also become adjustable variables, e.g. adding or removing an exchanger, or re-sequencing an exchanger. The optimization also takes account of constraints such as product quality in terms of boiling points and flow rates and column hydraulic constraints .The reason for adopting shortcut column models is that they are simple and robust, and provides a good preliminary design for the distillation columns. Moreover, applying shortcut column models can allow many important design variables to be optimized simultaneously, which may provide more opportunities to find better design solutions. However, rigorous column models may involve significant convergence problems when many variables are optimized at the same time.

Friday, 11 January 2019

What are the fundamental refinery process and also the products?

Crude oil could be a liquid mixture of hydrocarbons – chemical compounds consisting roughly of six components of carbon and one in all H, each of that are fuels; it usually conjointly carries tiny quantities of sulphur, salts, metals, chemical element and atomic number 7. it had been shaped from organic remains accumulated submarine and eventually cornered in substance rocks these rocks are wherever fossil oil exploration is focused. Usually the oil is compressed, Associate in Nursing gushes out if a pipe is pushed into an productive lure. however because it is extracted, the pressure diminishes, and it s typically unnaturally bolstered by injection of air or water into the reservoir to push up the oil. fossil oil contains hydrocarbons that modify in their boiling point; purification could be a method during which fossil oil is heated in an exceedingly vacuum till it evaporates and so allowed to rise a column. totally {different|completely different} hydrocarbons liquefy at different temperatures and may be collected at numerous heights within the distillation column. within the basic works method, crude is heated to 600ºC by injection of super heated steam and tense in at the underside of a vertical distillation column. because the vapour rises up the column, it cools. The column has trays at numerous heights with holes. because the vapor cools, fractions with completely different boiling points liquefy, collect within the trays and are drained off; product with high boiling points rise to the highest, whereas product with low boiling points collect on lower trays. The principal product, with their approximate boiling points, are crude gas (20ºC), solvent 40ºC), fuel 70ºC), lamp oil and gas jet fuel (120ºC), diesel (200ºC), lubricator 300ºC), and chamber oil (370ºC); solid crude coke collects at the underside when the liquid fractions are removed. 

The proportions during which these product initiate vary to Associate in Nursing extent with the crude; crude is classified as light-weight or significant per the proportion of sunshine product. however the balance of demand and provide for the product is such the costs of chamber oil are abundant under those of sunshine product like fuel, lamp oil and diesel fuel. The principal product obtained from the first purification and cracking processes are (see Appendix - table B5 and C1 for product-wise production and consumption): Liquefied crude gas (LPG), principally a mix of fuel and fuel. it s heavier than air, and liquefies harassed. it s used as a home change of state fuel, refrigerant, and transport fuel four million vehicles are calculable to be high-powered by LPG within the world. fuel is employed to fuel combustion engines principally transport. Its early use as a killer of lice and their eggs has utterly disappeared solvent is employed to form additives for high-octane fuel, and to form compound plastics and carbamide, a chemical element chemical. Aviation rotary engine fuel (ATF) is that the fuel employed in propeller planes it s appreciate fuel. Kerosene, conjointly called paraffin is employed as Associate in Nursing fuel and change of state fuel in Asian country and alternative poor countries, and as an area heating fuel in industrial countries. Jet fuel, employed in jet planes, is closely appreciate lamp oil. High-speed diesel fuel is employed in engines running at 750 revolutions per minute (rpm) or a lot of. it s principally employed in diesel-powered vehicles light-weight diesel fuel is employed in diesel engines running at lower speed – principally irrigation pumps and generation sets. chamber oil is formed by diluting residual oil from purification with middle distillates like diesel fuel. it s employed in boilers, bunkers, heaters, furnaces, or as chemical feed stock Low-sulphur significant stock (LSHS) could be a variant of chamber oil oil consists of greases and viscous oils wont to lubricate moving components in trade, vehicles, railway engines and carriages and marine engines. paraffin is employed as Associate in Nursing electrical nonconductor, for warmth storage and in thermostats. Asphalt could be a black thermoplastic product that s wont to build roads and generally for waterproofing. it s like tar that is formed from coal. Asphalt is additionally found in natural form; it had been wont to waterproof Egyptian mummies. Crude coke is generally used as fuel, however is additionally wont to build electrodes and Leclanche cell batteries. Some petrochemicals are made in massive enough bulk to require a big proportion of works products the globe consumed 345 million plenty of hydrocarbons in 2004 to form 310 million plenty of petrochemicals. Most of the hydrocarbons have 3 intermediates - gas, propane and aromatics – before being born-again to alternative product. Of the latter, plastics accounted for 225 million tons, and fibers for thirty eight million tons; solvents, detergents and artificial rubber accounted for many of the remainder.

Friday, 4 January 2019

What are the new developments in NDT ?

Modern developments altogether areas of technology particularly part, mass transit systems like railways, petrochemicals, oil and gas explorations and process, recreation, bio-materials, industrial and traditional and atomic energy plants, nano materials, micro-electronic parts, composites and multi-layered structures etc. that are enthusiastic about victimization materials that are stronger, lighter, produce other exotic properties and use minimum attainable raw materials. All this is often aimed at increasing the potency, sturdiness and reliability of machines containing parts created from such materials. There are rigorous necessities of managing these exotic new materials and for police investigation and characterizing the very tiny sizes of flaws. Consequently there's an excellent challenge to boost upon the prevailing techniques for non-destructive testing and develop new ones where needed. NDT has continuing to play a significant role for internal control of business product within the extremely aggressive and competitive world markets. It is not going to be entirely out of place to mention that the relative share of a specific country within the world market depends additional and additional on its investment in quality control and quality assurance, that in real terms associate degree in most cases suggests that an investment in NDT.NDT instrumentality has been created additional reliable and sensitive with a trend to form it as freelance of operator errors as attainable. This has seen a bigger use of computers and automation. Usually there is a tendency to see most of the modern NDT with microprocessors and computers with increased capabilities for image processing, knowledge acquisition and analysis. There's a growing trend towards victimization multiple transducers and multi-channel systems each for supersonic and eddy current testing. Equally the conception of simultaneously victimization multiple ways of examination is increasing, for instance for the examination of reactor pressure vessels. 

On-line and continuous watching of plant and instrumentality examination is currently commonly applied. To address the increased use of composite materials high sensitivity check methods like micro-focus radiography and high frequency supersonic testing are currently well established. NDT has been more and more applied in method management as a way to fulfilling the necessity of a good quality assurance conception of creating the product right the primary time. Such a shift towards use of NDT for method management has at the same time demanded development in many connected fields such newer and quicker NDTtechniques, computers and knowledge handling that create it easier to investigate NDT data chop-chop and use it in an exceedingly electrical circuit to switch, management and optimize the method. So there is a tendency to see development of huge installations using machine-driven radiography, tomography, supersonic testing, eddy current testing, and optical-visual testing and infra-red testing. But, increasing the degree of automation conjointly will increase the results of error. Therefore, a high degree of automation needs a high degree of (automated) watching and management. Consequently, a gradual want for machine-driven NDT is ascertained in business. Method integrated NDT has got to fulfill the wants of today’s industrial production regarding integrate-ability, automation, speed, reliability and profitability. A confluence of developments within the fields of physical science, engineering, simulation tools and signal process is contributory to the thrill and fueling a number of the foremost compelling advances. Technology is has added a new life into the sector and there's a lot of to appear forward to during this important scientific endeavor.

Monday, 31 December 2018

What is meant by pipe fabrication?

Pipelines are used to transport fluids, including vapors, gases, slurries and powders which flow through pipes at various pressures and temperatures. The transmission of these materials leads to intense stresses and strains and this demands the highest possible performance from the pipe. All pipework must be designed and fabricated in a way that ensures the safety of plant operators, the plant, the public and the environment. The fabricator who is responsible for the quality of the pipework fabrication must carry out work in accordance with all relevant standards and specifications. One mistake may lead to damage of millions of dollars, personal injury and in serious cases even death. Excellence in materials and quality of work is what is expected from welded pipe systems. Because high standards are required, the cost of pipework is extremely high. There must be a high degree of quality control when high-pressure pipe systems are being fabricated to ensure that they meet the specifications of the relevant codes. 
The inspecting authority may be the machinery inspection branch of the state or territory government, the insurance company underwriting the job or the representatives of the client for whom the pipework is being fabricated. The steps involved in the quality control program are: 1. Approval of the design of the pipe system. 2. Approval of the fabricator who may have to prove that there is adequate equipment and expert personnel to successfully meet the requirements of the relevant code(s). 3. Frequent checks to ensure that the specified material is being used. 4. Approval of welding procedures and regular inspections to ensure that these procedures are being followed. 5. Qualification of welders who are tested to ensure that they are capable of carrying out the approved procedures successfully. 6. Non-destructive testing as required by the code(s). 7. Post-weld heat treatment as required by the code(s). 8. Final hydrostatic testing or alternative testing method. Fabricators are responsible for the quality of the work they perform and for the coordination of all inspection and testing procedures as required by the relevant code(s). Pipe is specified by stating its nominal size (NS), which is only approximate. Nominal size is neither the inside nor the outside diameter and it is necessary to use standard tables or manufacturers’ tables to ascertain these two dimensions exactly. Pipe thicknesses are often described as ‘standard’ (STD), ‘extra strong’ (XS) and ‘double extra strong’ (XXS). However, most manufacturers have adopted the American piping code classification which classifies pipes into a schedule system. The mass of the pipe is referred to as the schedule of pipe, and may vary from Schedule 10 to Schedule 160. As the schedule number increases so does the wall thickness, and as a consequence the inside diameter reduces. The outside diameters remain constant enabling standardization of pipe brackets or threading. Pipes are sometimes referred to as tubes. The primary difference is in how they are measured, Boiler tubes and tubing are known by their outside diameter and their wall thickness. Socket-welded fittings allow for easy fabrication and fit-up of piping. Square end preparation of the pipe is all that is required and fillet welds are used, preferably made in two passes. Lower levels of operator skill are required to assemble and weld socket joints than are required for butt joints. The socket-welding system is preferable to the screwed system as it is simpler to assemble and avoids the possibility of leakage which sometimes arises in screwed joints.

Friday, 21 December 2018

What role does a petrochemical industry play?

Petrochemicals offer the main basic desires of quickly growing, increasing and extremely technical civilization as a supply of energy for domestic, industrial, transport sectors and as feed stock for fertilizers, artificial fibers, artificial rubbers, polymers, intermediates, explosives, agro chemicals, dyes, and paints etc. fashionable organic compound business fulfill the need of huge range of merchandise that area unit being employed in some or different kind in standard of living and additionally closely joined with the socio- economic aspiration of individuals which has packaging to agriculture, cars to telecommunication, construction to home appliances, health care to private care, pesticides to chemical, textile to tyre twine, chemicals to dyes, prescribed drugs and explosives . There's hardly any space of our life that's not compacted by petrochemicals. The organic compound business is very technological and capital intensive. Developments in organic compound technology area unit happening in no time. Tremendous resources and efforts area unit being unceasingly spent on increasing size of the plant, the yield through continuous up-gradation of catalyst, reducing energy consumption and value reduction through novel method rate, new chemistries or proportion approaches. Because of immense population, the per capita consumption of petrochemicals in Asian nation is concerning 506 kg compared to international weighted average twenty five kilo and China’s consumption of around 25-30 kilo. Oil and Gas courses in kerala purification and steam cracking of hydrocarbon and gas (ethane & propane) are the common routes of manufacturing petrochemicals. Several Indian refineries are currently getting into petrochemicals in an exceedingly huge means through inexperienced field comes and expansions. The potential in Asian nation will simply be fanciful, currently with growth in numerous sectors of economy like auto motives, construction, textiles etc starting off well. The organic compound complexes involve one or a mixture of the subsequent operations • The manufacture of basic raw materials like syn gas, methane, ethylene, propylene, acetylene, butadiene, benzene, toluene, xylene, etc. the fundamental building processes embody partial reaction, steam reforming, chemical change and thermal cracking, alkylation, dealkylation, chemical process, disproportional, isomerization, etc. The usually used unit operations area unit distillation, extractive distillation, azeotropic distillation, crystallizing, membrane separation, adsorption, absorption, solvent extraction, etc. • Manufacture of intermediate chemicals derived from the on top of basic chemicals by numerous unit processes like reaction, chemical process, chlorination, nitration, alkylation, dehydrogenation at the side of numerous unit operations like distillation, absorption, extraction, adsorption, etc. • Manufacture of target chemicals and polymers that will be utilized in the manufacture of target merchandise and chemicals to satisfy the patron desires. It includes plastics, artificial fibers, gum elastic, detergents, explosives, dyes, intermediates, and pesticides.
The petrochemical business has been the quickest growing sectors in Asian nation and become a significant section of industry, that is growing quicker than industries overall and inside chemicals. it's posed serious threat to industry supported natural feed stock – Biomass and Coal. The organic compound business is major provider of chemical inputs to an outsized and growing range of downstream. The Indian industry ranks twelfth by volume within the world for production of chemicals and accounts for concerning 14 percent within the general index of commercial production and 6 percent within the producing sector. It accounts for 13-14 percent of total exports and 8-9 percent of total imports of the country. It contributes three percent to the GDP . It contributes 13 percent of the producing industry's price supplemental and 8 percent of the overall exports of the country.