Saturday, 13 October 2018

Oil Refinery


The crude oil industry converts rock oil into quite 2500 refined merchandise, as well as liquefied crude gas, gasoline, kerosene, aviation fuel, diesel oil, fuel oils, lubricating oils, and feed stocks for the organic compound business. Industrial refinery activities begin with receipt of crude for storage at the refinery, embody all crude handling and processing operations, and that they terminate with storage preceding to shipping the refined merchandise from the works. The crude oil industry employs a good type of processes. A refinery’s process flow theme is essentially determined by the composition of the rock oil feedstock and therefore the chosen slate of crude merchandise. The primary innovate crude processing operations is that the separation of rock oil into its major constituents victimization three crude separation processes: Atmospherical distillation, vacuum distillation, and lightweight ends recovery (gas processing). Rock oil consists of a combination of organic compound compounds as well as paraffinic, naphthenic, and aromatic hydrocarbons with little amounts of impurities as well as sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, and metals. Works separation processes separate these rock oil constituents into common boiling-point fractions. To satisfy the stress for high-octane hydrocarbon, jet fuel, and diesel oil, elements like residual oils, fuel oils, light-weight ends are born-again to gasolines and different light fractions. Cracking, coking, and visbreaking processes are accustomed break giant crude molecules into smaller ones. Polymerization and alkylation processes are accustomed mix little crude molecules into larger ones. Changeover and reforming processes are applied to set up the structure of crude molecules to provide higher-value molecules of an identical molecular size. Crude treating processes stabilize and upgrade crude merchandise by separating them from less fascinating merchandise and by removing objectionable components. Undesirable components like sulfur, nitrogen, and are removed by hydro desulfurization, hydro treating, chemical sweetening, and acid gas removal. Treating processes, utilized primarily for the separation of crude merchandise, embody such processes as de asphalting. Desalting is employed to get rid of salt, minerals, grit, and water from rock oil feed stocks before processing. Asphalt processing is employed for polymerizing and stabilizing asphalt to enhance its weathering characteristics. 
The works feedstock and products handling operations accommodates unloading, storage, blending, and loading activities. A good assortment of processes and instrumentation indirectly concerned within the processing of rock oil is employed in functions important to the operation of the works. Examples are boilers, waste water treatment facilities, H plants, cooling towers, and sulfur recovery units. Merchandise from auxiliary facilities (clean water, steam, and method heat) are needed by most method units throughout the works. Method flow schemes, emission characteristics, and emission management technology are mentioned for every method. Lidded crude withdrawn from very cheap atmospherical distillation column consists of high boiling-point hydrocarbons. Once distilled at atmospherical pressures, the rock oil decomposes and polymerizes and can foul instrumentation. To separate lidded crude into elements, it should be distilled in a vacuum column at a very low and in an exceedingly steam atmosphere. Customary crude fractions withdrawn from the vacuum distillation column embody fill up distillates, vacuum oil and gas course in kerala, asphalt stocks, and residual oils. The vacuum within the vacuum distillation column is sometimes maintained by the employment of steam ejectors however could also be maintained by the employment of vacuum pumps. The most important sources of atmospherical emissions from the vacuum distillation column are related to the steam ejectors or vacuum pumps. A serious portion of the vapours withdrawn from the column by the ejectors or pumps is recovered in condensers.

Saturday, 29 September 2018

Welding


Welding is a process in which two or more parts are joined permanently at their touching surfaces by the force of heat and/or pressure. Often a filler material is added that helps in the merging. The parts that are joined together by welding are called a weldment. Factors affecting Weld-ability 1. Melting Point 2. Thermal conductivity 3. Thermal Expansion 4. Surface condition 5. Change in Micro structure. Welding is mainly used in metal parts and their alloys. Welding is of two types : Fusion welding and Solid state welding.1 Fusion welding : In this the base metal is melted by means of heat. Ina fusion welding operation, a filler metal is added to the molten pool to facilitate the process and provide bulk and strength to the joint. The most commonly used fusion welding processes are: arc welding, resistance welding, oxyfuel welding, electron beam welding and laser beam welding. 2. Solid-state welding: In this method joining of parts takes place by the application of pressure or a combination of heat and pressure. No filler metal is used in this . The most commonly used solid-state welding processes are: diffusion welding, friction welding, ultrasonic welding. Arc welding is a method of permanently joining two or more metal parts. It consists of combination of different welding processes wherein merging is done by heating with an electric arc, (mostly without the application of pressure) and with or without the use of filler metals that again depends upon the base plate thickness. A joint is achieved by melting and fusing the adjacent portions of the separate parts. The finally welded joint has a strength approximately equal to that of the base material. 

The arc temperature is maintained approximately at 4400°C. To prevent oxidation, a flux material is used which decomposes under the heat of welding and releases a gas that shields the arc and the hot metal. Precautions in Arc welding courses in kerala 1. Due to the intensity of heat and light rays from the electric arc, the operator’s hand face and eyes are to be protected while arc is in use 2. Heavy gloves are worn 3. Hand shield or a helmet with window of coloured glass must be used to protect the face 4. The space for the electric arc welding should be screened off from the rest of the building to safeguard other workmen from the glare of the arc.The second basic method employs an inert gas to form a protective envelope around the arc and the weld. The commonly used gases are Helium, argon, and carbon dioxide . Other processes that are used in the industry are as follows: 1. Diffusion bonding (DB): in this method parts are pressed together at an elevated temperature below the melting point for a period of time. 2. Explosion welding (EXW): In this method the parts to be welded are driven together at an angle with the help of an explosive charge and fuse together from the friction of the impact. 3. Ultrasonic welding (USW) for metals: This process makes use of transverse oscillation of one part against the other to develop sufficient frictional heat for fusion to occur. 4. Electro slag (ESW) and Electro gas (EGW) processes: In these a molten pool of weld metal contained by copper “shoes” is used to make vertical butt welds in heavy plate.

Monday, 17 September 2018

RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING

Different forms of Radiographic testing are :
Fluoroscopy: In a fluorescent salt screen  the image of the test specimen can be visually seen. The X rays passing through the object excite the fluorescent material producing bright spots in the more heavily irradiated areas. The fluorescent screen may be viewed directly or by means of a mirror or by using a camera and a closed circuit television. t 10 mm thickness, thin metal parts, welded assemblies and coarse sandwich constructions are screened by this method and castings with obvious large defects are rejected before usual inspection using film radiography.
Micro radiography: Micro-radiography is mainly applied in metallurgical studies. The radiograph when enlarged gives the structural details of the specimen.
Enlargement radiography: In some situations an enlarged image of an object is desired. To get the enlargement of the image the object to film distance is increased. To overcome the penumbral effects a source of an extremely small size is used.
High speed or flash radiography : for the radiography of moving objects, the exposure time should be very small and, at the same time, the intensity of the X rays should be extremely high. This is achieved by discharging huge condensers through special X ray tubes which give current of the order of thousands of amperes for a short time (of the order of a millionth of a second). This technique is normally applied in ballistics.
Auto radiography: In this case the specimen itself contains the material in radioactive form. When a film is placed in contact with the specimen, an autoradiograph is obtained showing the distribution of the radioactive material within the specimen. The technique is mainly used in the field of botany and metallurgy.
Electron transmission radiography : a beam of high energy X rays is used to produce photoelectrons from a lead screen. These electrons after passing through the specimen (of very low absorption like paper, etc.) expose the film and an electron radiograph is obtained. 
 Electron emission radiography: In this case a beam of X rays is used to produce photoelectrons from the specimen itself. These electrons expose the film which is placed in contact with the specimen. Since emission of electrons depends upon atomic number of an element, the electron emission will give the distribution of elements of different atomic numbers. 
Neutron radiography: In this case a neutron beam is used to radiograph the specimen. The recording system will, therefore, not be a photosensitive film since it is insensitive to neutrons. The following methods are used to record the image
Proton radiography : For special type of studies a proton beam can also be used. The number of protons transmitted through a specimen whose thickness is close to the proton range is very sensitive to exact thickness. This helps in detecting very small local variations in density and thickness.
 Stereo radiography : Two radiographs of the specimen are taken from two slightly different directions. The angle between these directions is the same as the angle subtended by the human eyes while viewing these radiographs. In the stereo viewer the left eye sees one radiograph and the right eye the other. In this way a realistic three dimensional effect is obtained giving the visual assessment of the position of the defect.
Xeroradiography : This is considered as a "dry" method of radiography in which a xerographic plate takes the place of X ray film. The plate is covered with a selenium powder and charged electrostatically in the dark room. Exposure to light or radiation causes the charge to decay in proportion to the amount of radiation received and a latent image is formed.

Thursday, 13 September 2018

NON – DESTRUCTIVE TESTING


Adequate NDT and inspection by suitably qualified personnel is very much essential during all stages of pipe manufacture, construction and operation. The newly used inspection methods and equipment assist in obtaining the maximum life expectancy from a pipeline reducing the overall operating costs. Fluoroscopy, computed radiography, digital radiography and automated ultrasonic testing helps in improving the probability of detection (POD) of discontinuities. Modern NDT methods have become more quantitative and less obtrusive, which many a time, results in saving over time. Thus it can be said these advanced NDT methods have the potential that could lead to significantly lower repair rates while maintaining existing safety standards .

The Radiation detectors that used are image intensifiers in fluoroscopic and real time imaging systems The equipment that is used to perform Radiographic inspection can be either an X-ray machine or a radioactive isotope that produces gamma radiation. The isotopes help in increased portability as no electrical power supply is required. Electronic imaging panels and phosphorescent imaging screens are used to create digital images for computed and digital radiography. Real time imaging can be used close to the welding station and can detect all the defects at an early stage thus reducing the number of faulty welds produced. Phosphorescent imaging plates in digital radiography replaces X-ray film and processing chemicals. They can be used again and the X-ray images are stored electronically on optical disc. These images can be electronically enhanced to increase or reduce density leading to discontinuities which may have been previously . The phosphorescent imaging screens are flexible and are used in conventional x-ray film. The phosphorescent screens store a latent image which is scanned with an infrared laser scanner and are then viewed on a monitor. Magnification and measuring tools are then used for further evaluation of images. The use of phosphorescent screens require shorter exposure time which can amount to considerable savings.
The primary benefit of UT is that it is a truly volumetric test which means it is capable of determining not only the approximate dimensions and location of a defect, it also provides information to the testing technician regarding the type of defect. Another major advantage of UT is that it requires access to one side of the material to be tested and it will best detect crack’s and incomplete fusion which may not be possible with Radiographic testing. Since a variety of beam angles can be used, UT can detect defect which may not be detectable by radiography .UT requires highly skilled technicians because interpretation of indications are difficult. Reference standards are used for calibration and setting up of the equipment. Test scans can be recorded by equipments providing automated scanning. This test method is generally limited to the inspection of butt welds of materials that are thicker than 6 mm. Automated UT is used in pipe mills where the welds are inspected by a multiple array of probes, scanning the entire weld and detecting any discontinuities at an early stage. AUT is an in-field test method. An array of probes mounted in a scanner are placed on the pipe and the weld area is scanned. An encoder records the probe position with respect to the distance traveled, which allows the weld to be tested in a shorter period of time, resulting in a complete volumetric test of the weld and reducing the number of errors.

Monday, 3 September 2018

IMPACT OF CRUDE OIL TRANSPORT


The increase in crude oil shipments results in environmental and safety risks from accidents that may occur along pipelines, rail lines, waterways and at transshipment sites. All of these modes pose certain risks and each has certain advantages compared with the other modes All the modes of crude oil transport pose potential risks to the environment, public health and safety. All modes of crude oil transport have advantages and disadvantages based on a range of operational, economic and environmental factors and considerations. Modes of transport like railroads, vessels, barges and trucks can carry less of oil in comparison to the pipelines, but their routes are more flexible, allowing oil industry shippers to respond more quickly to changing production locations and volumes and changes in demand from coastal refineries Risk may range from a modest spill on isolated rural land in the winter (limiting ground contamination) to a major catastrophic spill in large water bodies or a derailment-produced spill and fire in a major urban area. Different types of oil influence the mode or modes of transportation chosen and the risks associated with those choices .Manufacturing industries that rely both on oil for their operations and water for their industrial processes and could be impacted by oil spills . A spill in an important and sensitive region can have far-reaching consequences, including both the damage created by the oil itself and the effect of intensive cleanup efforts, which can compound the environmental impacts in ecologically sensitive areas.

A pipeline oil spill, when one occurs, can have severe and long lasting impacts on public health, the environment and regional economy .The age and quality of the pipeline infrastructure are important factors in assessing oil spill risk from this mode .Pipelines result in fewer oil spill incidents and personal injuries than road and rail, and large spills in the recent past shows that the overall impact of a spill on the environment, economy and human health can be serious. Over time the quality of pipeline declines due to structural degradation, cracks caused by corrosion, defective welding or incidental damage from third-party activities. Damages to pipeline infrastructure may contribute to increased risks of a pipeline spill. Pipelines require regular maintenance inspections and constant monitoring during operation. Accidents may occur from undetected structural or mechanical failure and made worse by insufficient or delayed monitoring. Ships and barges pose fewer risks in transporting hazardous liquids than trains and trucks, and have economic advantages over these modes of transport, as well .A barge or tanker ships containing crude oil may undergo severe structural damage and spill cargo as the result of a collision with another ship. The increased volume of rail transport has also led to a rise in oil spill incidents involving trains .Unmonitored crossing points are special risk zones where accidents with automobiles can increase the risk of an oil spill or explosion. Even improperly assembled trains are more susceptible to derailment .Trucks are primarily used to transport oil for relatively short distances because long distance transport by truck is not ordinarily an economical option. Since large trucks are used to transport oil to and from railway transshipment facilities and pipelines, poorly maintained and monitored infrastructure at delivery points and fuel loading terminals could contribute to accidents, including fire and explosion.
Diploma in Oil and Gas Engineering

Tuesday, 14 August 2018

ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF OIL AND GAS

Exploration and production of fossil fuel, have caused several damaging impacts to soils, surface and groundwater and ecosystems These impacts arose primarily from the improper disposal of huge volumes of saline water created with oil and gas, from accidental organic compound and produced-water releases, and from abandoned oil wells that were orphan or not properly blocked .The  Impact of  the   surface level effect within the location of  several acres per well, can even arise from connected activities like web site clearance, construction of roads, tank batteries, brine pits and pipelines, and alternative improvement in land is  necessary for the drilling,exploration and production wells and construction of production facilities. New environmental laws and improved trade practices and technology have reduced the foremost damaging effects of fossil fuel activities. Additionally, some operators have taken steps, sometimes voluntarily, to reverse damages ensuing from fossil fuel operations. Oil and Gas Courses in Kerala.
During drilling, a drilling fluid is unceasingly circulated between the well and also the platform through a ‘riser pipe’. Mud is used to keep a check on the  well pressure and wall stability, to chill and lubricate the bit and to hold the rock chips (cuttings) generated throughout the drilling method far away from the cutting head to the platform. Here, the cuttings area unit part clean and also the majority of drill mud re-used. Mud is  available in a range of forms, passionate about their fluid base. Amongst these are  water primarily {based} mud and oil based mud . Within the past, the majority of clean OBM cuttings were discharged to the bottom together with their residual oily mud contamination. This caused changes to the bottom via a mix of suffocating, organic enrichment and toxicity effects. These were seen to be most severe near to discharging platforms wherever the ‘pile proper’ fashioned, however they ordinarily extended up to a distance of one or two kilometer. These discharges are not any longer allowed. Workers  investigate the likelihood of hydrocarbons being present under the seabed using high intensity sound (seismic surveys).  Species of fish  that are meant for commercial purpose are sensitive to sound and, at close range, larval fish might even be killed by seismic sources. Seismal surveys would possibly thus disturb spawning fish faraway from territory wherever they need chosen to mixture for spawning functions and this might, in extreme circumstances, be harmful to stock productivity, worrying fish faraway from ancient areas may additionally have an effect on fishermen’s catches.
During production, giant amounts of created water  are recovered with hydrocarbons. This can be clean to terribly rigorous standards and a few is re-injected to take care of reservoir pressure. Usually Chemicals of different types are  being used for  treating  the oil, gas and water that is gathered from offshore reservoirs. These are regulated under a harmonized mandatory control scheme. The bulk, however, has historically been discharged to ocean. As fields age and because the amounts of oil remaining fall, the amounts of PW increase. A large kind of chemicals is employed to treat the oil, gas and water that's gathered from offshore reservoirs. Oil and Gas Courses in Kerala.

Tuesday, 7 August 2018

OIL DRILLING


After an organisation determines that an area has enough resources to explore, leases area unit purchased from mineral rights owners (where applicable), permits area unit issued by the state, and conjointly the well pad and access roads area unit created. Drilling may be a comparatively well-understood in technological method however no 2 wells in an unit area are constant and thus risk management is vital. The biggest thought concern with drilling is that the risk of blowouts, that is that the uncontrolled unleash of oil and gas from a well .But a high level of effort is needed by operators and regulators to make sure this doesn't happen. Additionally to that a large array of drilling activities may cause adverse environmental impacts. The bottom clearing will have adverse effects on the ecological surroundings. Air quality and waste management from construction and through drilling is a difficulty. The rise of vehicle and traffic conjointly creates a sway on the native setting. Unconventional O&G drilling then yield in a pair of major phases: directional drilling and well stimulation. Oil and gas courses in kerala
Directional Drilling: the method begins by drilling to all-time low of a water formation. It pulls the loose rocks and the sediment to the surface to be discarded (i.e., drilling muds).Surface casing (steel piping) is inserted into the bore hole to protect recent formations by creating a physical barrier between the geological formation and drilling materials. This casing together may be a foundation for the blowout preventer – a security device that connects the rig to the wellbore. Cement comes out through the casing and out through the gap at all-time low of the casing. The force pushes the cement into the casing and the hole, thus protecting the wellbore from the water. Drilling continues vertically, creating a well 1,828 m deep. The depth of the well will vary by region and formation. Among the Marcellus rock the well is then trained horizontally a 3,048 meters. The casing is inserted once the desired length is achieved. The drilling methodology is presently complete and well stimulation can begin.
Stimulation of well : A gun used for piercing is pushed into the horizontal portion of the well, where electrical current originating from the surface triggers a charge that shoots small holes through the casing and cement. Inside the case , huge volume of water, fracking fluid/chemicals, and sand area unit then tense into the well to fracture the rock formation and unleash the hydrocarbons keep tightly within the rock. In some formations, acidizing is the foremost well-liked stimulation technique. Ohio wells use virtually fifteen, 600 gallons of HCl; American state, 5,100-7,700 gallons. Many sand or proppant, and thousands of gallons of frack fluid area unit then tense into the bottom at terribly high pressures therefore on fracture the rock and unleash gas and/or oil2. Oil can then flow up the well to the surface, at the facet of flow back fluid consisting of variable proportions of the injected fluids, and various liquids from the rock layer like salt-saturated water, drilling muds, or brine. These fluids area unit tense into a waiting pool (impoundment) or in closed storage tanks where the liquid waste area unit reaching to be either recycled and used at another website or disposed of keep with restrictive standards specific to the state throughout that they are disposed. Oil and gas Institute