Tuesday, 14 August 2018


Exploration and production of fossil fuel, have caused several damaging impacts to soils, surface and groundwater and ecosystems These impacts arose primarily from the improper disposal of huge volumes of saline water created with oil and gas, from accidental organic compound and produced-water releases, and from abandoned oil wells that were orphan or not properly blocked .The  Impact of  the   surface level effect within the location of  several acres per well, can even arise from connected activities like web site clearance, construction of roads, tank batteries, brine pits and pipelines, and alternative improvement in land is  necessary for the drilling,exploration and production wells and construction of production facilities. New environmental laws and improved trade practices and technology have reduced the foremost damaging effects of fossil fuel activities. Additionally, some operators have taken steps, sometimes voluntarily, to reverse damages ensuing from fossil fuel operations. Oil and Gas Courses in Kerala.
During drilling, a drilling fluid is unceasingly circulated between the well and also the platform through a ‘riser pipe’. Mud is used to keep a check on the  well pressure and wall stability, to chill and lubricate the bit and to hold the rock chips (cuttings) generated throughout the drilling method far away from the cutting head to the platform. Here, the cuttings area unit part clean and also the majority of drill mud re-used. Mud is  available in a range of forms, passionate about their fluid base. Amongst these are  water primarily {based} mud and oil based mud . Within the past, the majority of clean OBM cuttings were discharged to the bottom together with their residual oily mud contamination. This caused changes to the bottom via a mix of suffocating, organic enrichment and toxicity effects. These were seen to be most severe near to discharging platforms wherever the ‘pile proper’ fashioned, however they ordinarily extended up to a distance of one or two kilometer. These discharges are not any longer allowed. Workers  investigate the likelihood of hydrocarbons being present under the seabed using high intensity sound (seismic surveys).  Species of fish  that are meant for commercial purpose are sensitive to sound and, at close range, larval fish might even be killed by seismic sources. Seismal surveys would possibly thus disturb spawning fish faraway from territory wherever they need chosen to mixture for spawning functions and this might, in extreme circumstances, be harmful to stock productivity, worrying fish faraway from ancient areas may additionally have an effect on fishermen’s catches.
During production, giant amounts of created water  are recovered with hydrocarbons. This can be clean to terribly rigorous standards and a few is re-injected to take care of reservoir pressure. Usually Chemicals of different types are  being used for  treating  the oil, gas and water that is gathered from offshore reservoirs. These are regulated under a harmonized mandatory control scheme. The bulk, however, has historically been discharged to ocean. As fields age and because the amounts of oil remaining fall, the amounts of PW increase. A large kind of chemicals is employed to treat the oil, gas and water that's gathered from offshore reservoirs. Oil and Gas Courses in Kerala.

Tuesday, 7 August 2018


After an organisation determines that an area has enough resources to explore, leases area unit purchased from mineral rights owners (where applicable), permits area unit issued by the state, and conjointly the well pad and access roads area unit created. Drilling may be a comparatively well-understood in technological method however no 2 wells in an unit area are constant and thus risk management is vital. The biggest thought concern with drilling is that the risk of blowouts, that is that the uncontrolled unleash of oil and gas from a well .But a high level of effort is needed by operators and regulators to make sure this doesn't happen. Additionally to that a large array of drilling activities may cause adverse environmental impacts. The bottom clearing will have adverse effects on the ecological surroundings. Air quality and waste management from construction and through drilling is a difficulty. The rise of vehicle and traffic conjointly creates a sway on the native setting. Unconventional O&G drilling then yield in a pair of major phases: directional drilling and well stimulation. Oil and gas courses in kerala
Directional Drilling: the method begins by drilling to all-time low of a water formation. It pulls the loose rocks and the sediment to the surface to be discarded (i.e., drilling muds).Surface casing (steel piping) is inserted into the bore hole to protect recent formations by creating a physical barrier between the geological formation and drilling materials. This casing together may be a foundation for the blowout preventer – a security device that connects the rig to the wellbore. Cement comes out through the casing and out through the gap at all-time low of the casing. The force pushes the cement into the casing and the hole, thus protecting the wellbore from the water. Drilling continues vertically, creating a well 1,828 m deep. The depth of the well will vary by region and formation. Among the Marcellus rock the well is then trained horizontally a 3,048 meters. The casing is inserted once the desired length is achieved. The drilling methodology is presently complete and well stimulation can begin.
Stimulation of well : A gun used for piercing is pushed into the horizontal portion of the well, where electrical current originating from the surface triggers a charge that shoots small holes through the casing and cement. Inside the case , huge volume of water, fracking fluid/chemicals, and sand area unit then tense into the well to fracture the rock formation and unleash the hydrocarbons keep tightly within the rock. In some formations, acidizing is the foremost well-liked stimulation technique. Ohio wells use virtually fifteen, 600 gallons of HCl; American state, 5,100-7,700 gallons. Many sand or proppant, and thousands of gallons of frack fluid area unit then tense into the bottom at terribly high pressures therefore on fracture the rock and unleash gas and/or oil2. Oil can then flow up the well to the surface, at the facet of flow back fluid consisting of variable proportions of the injected fluids, and various liquids from the rock layer like salt-saturated water, drilling muds, or brine. These fluids area unit tense into a waiting pool (impoundment) or in closed storage tanks where the liquid waste area unit reaching to be either recycled and used at another website or disposed of keep with restrictive standards specific to the state throughout that they are disposed. Oil and gas Institute