Monday, 17 September 2018


Different forms of Radiographic testing are :
Fluoroscopy: In a fluorescent salt screen  the image of the test specimen can be visually seen. The X rays passing through the object excite the fluorescent material producing bright spots in the more heavily irradiated areas. The fluorescent screen may be viewed directly or by means of a mirror or by using a camera and a closed circuit television. t 10 mm thickness, thin metal parts, welded assemblies and coarse sandwich constructions are screened by this method and castings with obvious large defects are rejected before usual inspection using film radiography.
Micro radiography: Micro-radiography is mainly applied in metallurgical studies. The radiograph when enlarged gives the structural details of the specimen.
Enlargement radiography: In some situations an enlarged image of an object is desired. To get the enlargement of the image the object to film distance is increased. To overcome the penumbral effects a source of an extremely small size is used.
High speed or flash radiography : for the radiography of moving objects, the exposure time should be very small and, at the same time, the intensity of the X rays should be extremely high. This is achieved by discharging huge condensers through special X ray tubes which give current of the order of thousands of amperes for a short time (of the order of a millionth of a second). This technique is normally applied in ballistics.
Auto radiography: In this case the specimen itself contains the material in radioactive form. When a film is placed in contact with the specimen, an autoradiograph is obtained showing the distribution of the radioactive material within the specimen. The technique is mainly used in the field of botany and metallurgy.
Electron transmission radiography : a beam of high energy X rays is used to produce photoelectrons from a lead screen. These electrons after passing through the specimen (of very low absorption like paper, etc.) expose the film and an electron radiograph is obtained. 
 Electron emission radiography: In this case a beam of X rays is used to produce photoelectrons from the specimen itself. These electrons expose the film which is placed in contact with the specimen. Since emission of electrons depends upon atomic number of an element, the electron emission will give the distribution of elements of different atomic numbers. 
Neutron radiography: In this case a neutron beam is used to radiograph the specimen. The recording system will, therefore, not be a photosensitive film since it is insensitive to neutrons. The following methods are used to record the image
Proton radiography : For special type of studies a proton beam can also be used. The number of protons transmitted through a specimen whose thickness is close to the proton range is very sensitive to exact thickness. This helps in detecting very small local variations in density and thickness.
 Stereo radiography : Two radiographs of the specimen are taken from two slightly different directions. The angle between these directions is the same as the angle subtended by the human eyes while viewing these radiographs. In the stereo viewer the left eye sees one radiograph and the right eye the other. In this way a realistic three dimensional effect is obtained giving the visual assessment of the position of the defect.
Xeroradiography : This is considered as a "dry" method of radiography in which a xerographic plate takes the place of X ray film. The plate is covered with a selenium powder and charged electrostatically in the dark room. Exposure to light or radiation causes the charge to decay in proportion to the amount of radiation received and a latent image is formed.

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